The Manchurian and Abyssinian Crises - LON

An explanation of the Manchurian and Abyssinian crisises and the effects on the League of Nations.

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The Japanese claimed that Chinese soldiers had sabotaged their Southern Korean
railway so they could attack in self-defence (the Kellogg-Briand pact prevented all
countries for being aggressive for 5 years unless in the case of self defence.)
Invaded and conquered Manchuria (South Korea) 1932.
Later in 1932 they invaded Shanghai, which was when China appealed to the League
for help.
The League decided to sail around the world and assess the situation in China; a year
later they produced the Lytton Report stating that Japan had acted unlawfully. Japan
were insulted and used their veto against the report in the assembly. Japan left the
The League couldn't decide on sanctions and following the Wall Street Crash, Britain
and France were unprepared to send in an army to help the Chinese and were acting
in self-interest. Therefore, the Japanese remained unpunished and in 1937 invaded
Following a previous Italian invasion in Abyssinia when they were defeated with poor
quality weapons, Mussolini stormed into Abyssinia in 1934.
The Abyssinian emperor appealed to the League for help.
League banned arms sales to both sides.
The League suggested Italy should have some land in Abyssinia but Italy wanted it all
­ used poison gas and attacked Red Cross hospitals.
Britain and France refused to intervene and were continuing to be self isolationists
but in 1935 a secret deal was published called the Hoare-Laval pact which entitled
Italy to all of Abyssinia but without consulting the Abyssinian emperor as they were
hoping Italy would be an ally for WW2 against Germany.
Italy gained all of Abyssinia and the League did barely anything.
Effects on the League:
It became clear that the League couldn't do anything if a strong nation disobeyed it.
The Leagues delay and slowness made it seem scared.
Sanctions were shown to be useless.
Everyone could see Britain and France weren't prepared to get involved and help.
The four main powers all disobeyed the League.
Smaller nations realised that the League would not and could not defend them.
Britain and France realised that the League was not going to prevent war so began
following the idea of appeasement.
Hitler was encouraged to move ahead with his plans.


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