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Relationships ­
Topic 7…read more

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Voluntary Vs Non Voluntary
relationships AO1
Non Western
Western Relationships Relationships
· Western cultures are · Non Western cultures
more urban and have fewer large urban
individuals have high centres and individuals
geographical and social have low geographic and
mobility. social mobility.
· Therefore individuals · Therefore individuals
interact with a large pool interact less with
of people strangers
As a result, western countries have voluntary relationships due to a large choice of
individuals. Non western countries on the other hand have non-voluntary
relationships as they have less choice and choice is often linked to family or money.…read more

Slide 3

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Individual Vs Group Based
Relationships AO1
Non Western
Western Relationships Relationships
· Western cultures are · Non Western cultures
individualist cultures and may be collectivist
place emphasis on cultures and place
individual rights and emphasis on
freedom. interdependence rather
than independence
Moghaddam et al (1993)
· In an individualist culture individuals have freedom of choice in the
formation of relationships
· In a collectivist culture the family's concerns have priority in the formation of
relationships.…read more

Slide 4

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The Importance of Love in
Relationships AO1
Non Western
Western Relationships Relationships
· Levine et al (1995) · Levine et al (1995)
· In the US respondents · In collectivist cultures
were reluctant to marry in such as India and
the absence of love Thailand more people
were happy to marry in
the absence of love
· This is because extended
family is more important
than romantic love…read more

Slide 5

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Cultural Differences in Loneliness
AO1 Non Western
Western Relationships Relationships
· Seepersad et al (2008) · Seepersad et al (2008)
· Young adults experience a · Young adults in non
higher degree of loneliness in western cultures feel a
the UK and US than in China lower degree of loneliness
and Korea when not in a when not in a romantic
romantic relationship relationship
· This is because western cultures · This is because of a lower
have a greater emphasis on desire for romantic
romantic relationships which relationships
amplifies loneliness · Korean students relied
· American students relied more more heavily on their
on their friends and significant family to fulfil their social
others to fulfil their social needs needs…read more

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Voluntary relationships aren't necessarily better AO2
· Support for non-voluntary relationships
making sense comes from Epstein (2002)
· Epstein suggested that in some societies
arranged marriages work
· This is indicated in the low divorce rates and in
that half of them claim to have fallen in love
· This is further supported by Myers (2005)
who compared arranged marriages in India to
non-arranged marriages in the US and found
no difference in satisfaction
This shows that voluntary relationships aren't necessarily better
than non-voluntary relationships…read more

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