The First World War- Western Front (Paper 1)

Notes on Schlieffen Plan, Battle of the Marne, Race to the Sea, Trench warfare, Weapons, Battles (including Somme).

Enjoy!! Happy revising! :D

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Ace123
  • Created on: 16-05-09 10:21
Preview of The First World War- Western Front (Paper 1)

First 395 words of the document:

The Western Front
Why was the war not over by Christmas of 1914 and why had stalemate occurred
by the end of 1914?
What was the Schieffen Plan?
The Schlieffen Plan was a plan devised by Germany in 1905, to avoid war on
It was based on the idea that Germany would be at war with France and Russia
at the same time.
The plan was to conquer France by sending troops via Belgium to Paris and to
defeat France quickly, in six weeks before Russian troops mobilised. Then they
would send their troops to Russia.
The Schlieffen plan failed for these reasons:
Belgium put up unexpected resistance- This slowed down the German troops and
won time for the arrival of the BEF.
The BEF'S arrival in Mons- Germany did not expect the British Expeditionary
Force to turn up in France. The Battle of Mons slowed Germany's advance into
France, therefore Germany were unable to capture France quickly.
Russia mobilised quicker than expected and had already invaded Germany- This
meant that the German Supreme Commander had to take out 100,000 troops of
the army advancing on Paris. The army was separated and weakened.
The German army were underfed and exhausted- Supplies could not keep up
with the German army who had advanced quickly.
The Battle of the Marne- Sep 1914
Von Kluck, the German commander decided to head straight towards Paris
instead of going around like the original plan.
While the German troops advanced on foot, the French fought to get to Paris
first- their troops were transported by rail and even by taxi. The German
troops were exhausted.
The combined British and French troops were able to stop the German advance
along the River Marne, and push them to the River Aisne. However they could not
drive them out of the country completely.
Neither side could make any progress. Troops on both sides began digging trenches for
protection from snipers and shell fire. Soon after, they added machine guns and
barbed wire. = STALEMATE
The Race to the Sea
This was when both sides tried to get round the end of the enemy's lines.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

By getting to sea, the British could transport soldiers and weapons more quickly.
This is why Germany also wanted to get to sea- they wanted to have control
over the ports to stop transportation of British soldiers and weapons.
The British won the `race.'
The First Battle of Ypres
This was a key battle in the race to the sea. It happened from 12th October to
11th November 1914.
The BEF lost around 50,000 men and the Germans lost 100,000.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

1. Artillery- Used to bombard German trenches by firing hundreds
of shells. They were placed behind the trenches. (Used in the
Battle of the Somme)
Advantages- Artillery bombardments caused more
casualties than any other weapon. Key weapon of the war-
even provided jobs for making shells.
Disadvantages- At the beginning of the war, the guns were not accurate-
difficult to get the range right. Also, many shells were dubs.
2. Machine Guns- Used to kill soldiers attacking across `No-man's land.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Aeroplanes- Used for reconnaissance over enemy trenches' later used frequently to
attack enemy trenches, and `dog fights.'
Advantages- Speed and mobility meant that commanders could use them
to observe enemy positions. Photographs taken were very valuable.
Disadvantages- In 1914, the aeroplanes were very basic. They were
unreliable and very dangerous. There were many losses- new pilots.
Key Battles 1915
Neuve Chapelle- After only three days of fighting, 11, 000 British troops were
killed and only a few square kilometres of land was won.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

In later attacks tanks were to be used to help the British troops
advance. There were not enough tanks. 29 broke down and the rest got
stuck in mud.
What were the effects of the Battle of the Somme?
The British army- On the first day of the Somme, 20, 000 British soldiers were
killed and 35, 000 were injured. By the end of the battle 420,000 British
soldiers died. Only 7 square miles of land was gained from the Germans.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all resources »