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The battle of Manzikert (1071)

This battle, between the Byzantines and the Seljuk Turks, was a major defeat for the Byzantines and
led to the beginning of the First Crusade. The Seljuk Turks had before unseen battle tactics in which
they would hover around their enemy and once battle was…

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the other hand, Frereche split the treasures of the family behind all of the brothers. This
meant that some men felt cheated out of possessions so went on Crusade to gain land in the
Middle East instead of missing out in Europe. Henry II on England and Bohemond of Taranto…

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The leaders
The official Crusade left Europe on August 15th 1096. The three main groups that left were
led by Raymond of Toulouse, who was aged 55 and mainly interested in absolving his sins,
Godfrey of Bouillon took a group from Northern France, he wanted to leave Europe to gain…

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Main reasons for the First Crusade being a success

Muslim disunity ­ the Muslim leaders were too preoccupied by their own disputes to see
the Crusaders as a major threat. Firstly Kilij Arslan didn't stop them in Anatolia because he was
busy fighting Danishmend. When the Governor of Antioch looked…

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The Crusade of 1101

After Godfrey accepted the position of Advocate of the Holy Sepulchre in 1099, he died childless in
1100. Baldwin, who had left the main Crusading army to capture the county of Edessa, accepted the
Kingship of Jerusalem in 1100. He immediately asked Pope Paschal for help…

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The founding of the Kingdom of Jerusalem

The aim of the first years of Jerusalem was to capture the ports along the Mediterranean; this would
allow him to have access to the sea so that supplies could be brought directly from Europe to his
depleted forces. Many of the Italian…

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What was the Jihad?

The Jihad was the Muslim idea of a Holy War to spread Islam throughout the world. They aimed to get
rid of the infidel, in this case the Christians. The idea of the Jihad developed after the conquest of
Jerusalem by the Crusaders. Like the Crusade,…

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What prompted the call?

The fall of Edessa led to Hugh of Jabala sending for help from Pope Eugenius to call for a nother
Crusade to help those in the Latin East. He issued a Papal bull in December 1145, a year after the fall
of Edessa, which was sent…

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After reaching Antioch

Louis reached Antioch in March 1148 along with his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine. Her uncle was
Raymond of Antioch, and soon after they decided not to go straight to Edessa but to try and take
Aleppo, they were suspected of having an affair. Louis captured Eleanor and…

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Nur-ad-Din's first goal was to unite all of the Muslims within Syria, including bringing Damascus into
the Jihad. His first opportunity came in 1149when Onor of Damascus died, leaving the city in a
struggle to see who would lead them. The two main candidates were Onor's young son, Abaq,…




This is a very substantial resource that provides accurate information on the events of the First and Second Crusade as well as ideas on why the first succeeded and the second failed. Highly recommended.

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