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Pluralist and Geographical
Hans Mayer argued only military expeditions which aimed at acquiring or preserving Christian domination over the Sepulchre of Our Lord in Jerusalem as
being crusades.

Carl Erdmann
RileySmith's definition of a crusade included all military expeditions which were undertaken with three general criteria Just Cause,…

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S. Runciman suggests that Baldwin I's main enemy, the Egyptians, were unable to develop a clear military strategy. Also their soldiers were no
match for the crusaders. He also suggests that Baldwin II was successful because of the divisions between the Syrian Muslims.

Zengi and Edessa
J Prawer and H…

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The Third Crusade
H. Mayer see the achievements of the Third Crusade as being modest compared to the size of the army that went. Though he does conceded that the
Third Crusade extended the crusader presence by 100 years.

J. Richard has more positive evaluation of the Third Crusade emphasising…




Quite useful, but, AQA suggest historians such as Thomas Madden, Thomas Asbride, Jonathan Phillips, Riley-Smith (which you included), John France, Irene Merrall and, Byrom and Riley as being more credited. Hope this helps :)

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