The Cold War- complete notes

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  • Created on: 04-06-13 11:40
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US Presidents:
Roosevelt 193345
Truman 19451953
Eisenhower 195361
Kennedy 196163
Johnson196369 only small role, ending of Vietnam war, not important
Nixon 196974
Ford 197477
Carter 197781
Reagan 198189
Bush 198993
Soviet leaders:
Stalin 192853
Collective leadership 195356 (Malenkov, Beria, Khrushchev)
Khrushchev 195664
Collective Leadership 1964 1971 (Brezhnev and Kosygin)
Brezhnev 1971 ­ 1982
Andropov 1982 ­ 1984
Chernenko 1984 ­ 1985
Gorbachev 1985 ­ 1991
Roosevelt (later replaced with Truman), Stalin, Churchill (later replaced
with Atlee)
Yalta and Potsdam: free elections agreed but later ignored by Stalin.
Russian influence in east Europe still present after ww2 not wanting to
withdraw its influence, annoyed the allies seen as communist
George Kennan's Long telegram outlining the fear of the spread of
communism (1946). Led to the US policy of containment
Churchill's Iron Curtain speech in 1946

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Truman doctrine 1947 US would provide military and economic
resources to stop the spread of communism. Marshall Aid 1947 US
money to promote European economic recovery.
Molotov described Marshall Aid as being `dollar imperialisms'
Soviet response was Comecon and Cominform
Berlin Blockade by Stalin, Allies respond with airlift of supplies
Stalin is forced to give up and reopens the blockade.…read more

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K's secret speech and destalinisation angered Mao in China
Hungarian uprising 1956 soviet forces sent in to quash rebellion.
3 Summits: 1) Geneva 1955 first time leaders met since Potsdam, nothing
was agreed but an understanding was reached, recognition of 2 spheres of
2) Paris nothing agreed, K walked out due to U2 spyplane incident
3) Vienna US wanted disarmament, USSR wanted to talk about Berlin,
nothing agreed
Berlin Crisis Berlin Wall established, western refusal to demilitarise West
Germany.…read more

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Communism or
Technological achievement was a way
of measuring these benefits.
CONSIDERATIONS Khrushchev ­ constant boasting was More susceptible to the pressures
a reflection of his own personal of democracy.
insecurities as leader. Eisenhower ­ fear of `bomber gap'
April 1956 ­ Khrushchev informed led to an increase in defence
the British Prime Minister's wife that spending.
Soviet missiles could easily reach Even when it was safe, Eisenhower
Britain.…read more

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Cuban Missile Crisis:
On October 16, 1962, the CIA gave President John F. Kennedy hard
evidence--pictures taken by highaltitude U2 reconnaissance planes--that Cuba
was receiving from the Soviets intermediaterange ballistic missiles capable of
carrying nuclear warheads and reaching large areas of the eastern U.S. Although
Kennedy had voiced no strong objections to the Soviets supplying Cuba with
defensive weapons--and the Soviets had made it known they were arming their
ally against the possibility of another U.S.…read more

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For Kennedy, it was the high point of his presidency.
CMC resulted in: the nuclear test ban treaty 1963 and the hot line between
the US and Soviet leaders.…read more

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US toned down its policy in the far east, withdrew support from Taiwan
Series of opportunities to undermine and embarrass the USSR
Implications for the USSR:
closer links with china a way for the USA to exert more pressure on
the USSR and extract more concessions
USSR now had to engage in triangular diplomacy
If USSR didn't offer concessions, USA could be forced into
closer links with China
All about improving relations and arms limitations
FEAR OF WAR CMC had highlighted the…read more

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SALT 2: outlined in 1974 (Brezhnev and Ford), set limits for missile
launchers and strategic bombers, Carter attempted to renegotiate terms to
further limit no.…read more

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This produced
renewed suspicion and mistrust and tension.
The end of the Cold War
ECONOMIC What/why? Inefficient, centralised economy lead to
PRESSURES widespread food shortages. Overstretched economy
focused on military spending. Drained from Afghanistan.
Impact? Linked to popular protest & influence
Gorbachev's reforms (perestroika)
Counterargument? Large impact only within the USSR
influenced Gorby's reforms which are main reason for end.…read more

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Impact? Collapse of surrounding communist regimes in
East Europe. Poland= Solidarity E. Germany= fall of Berlin
wall Czechoslovakia= velvet revolution, civic forum
Counter? Only possible due to Gorby's willingness.
Change from above catalyst for change from below. `People
power' only small role. If Gorby didn't choose to end B.D
and not agree with sending troops to quash rebellions people
power would have had no effect.…read more


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