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THE COLD WAR
US Presidents:
Roosevelt 193345
Truman 19451953
Eisenhower 195361
Kennedy 196163
Johnson196369 only small role, ending of Vietnam war, not important
Nixon 196974
Ford 197477
Carter 197781
Reagan 198189
Bush 198993

Soviet leaders:

Stalin 192853
Collective leadership 195356 (Malenkov, Beria, Khrushchev)
Khrushchev 195664
Collective Leadership 1964 1971 (Brezhnev…

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Truman doctrine 1947 US would provide military and economic
resources to stop the spread of communism. Marshall Aid 1947 US
money to promote European economic recovery.
Molotov described Marshall Aid as being `dollar imperialisms'
Soviet response was Comecon and Cominform
Berlin Blockade by Stalin, Allies respond with airlift of supplies…

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K's secret speech and destalinisation angered Mao in China
Hungarian uprising 1956 soviet forces sent in to quash rebellion.
3 Summits: 1) Geneva 1955 first time leaders met since Potsdam, nothing
was agreed but an understanding was reached, recognition of 2 spheres of
influence
2) Paris nothing agreed, K walked…

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benefits of Communism or
Capitalism.
Technological achievement was a way
of measuring these benefits.
PERSONAL SOVIET UNION UNITED STATES
CONSIDERATIONS Khrushchev ­ constant boasting was More susceptible to the pressures
a reflection of his own personal of democracy.
insecurities as leader. Eisenhower ­ fear of `bomber gap'
April 1956 ­…

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Cuban Missile Crisis:

On October 16, 1962, the CIA gave President John F. Kennedy hard
evidence--pictures taken by highaltitude U2 reconnaissance planes--that Cuba
was receiving from the Soviets intermediaterange ballistic missiles capable of
carrying nuclear warheads and reaching large areas of the eastern U.S. Although
Kennedy had voiced no strong…

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humiliation, and led to hardliners there initiating a massive buildup of missile
and nuclear capability. For Kennedy, it was the high point of his presidency.

CMC resulted in: the nuclear test ban treaty 1963 and the hot line between
the US and Soviet leaders.
Flexible response
Civilian impact

SinoSoviet split…

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US toned down its policy in the far east, withdrew support from Taiwan
Series of opportunities to undermine and embarrass the USSR

Implications for the USSR:

closer links with china a way for the USA to exert more pressure on
the USSR and extract more concessions
USSR now had to…

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SALT 2: outlined in 1974 (Brezhnev and Ford), set limits for missile
launchers and strategic bombers, Carter attempted to renegotiate terms to
further limit no. of soviet missiles (1977), precise figures agreed at summit
in Vienna 1979
SALT 2 abandoned due to increasing conflict in 3rd world (Angola, Iran<
Afghanistan)…

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in the 3rd world showed the soviets had expanded their influence. This produced
renewed suspicion and mistrust and tension.

The end of the Cold War

FACTOR DETAIL
ECONOMIC What/why? Inefficient, centralised economy lead to
PRESSURES widespread food shortages. Overstretched economy
focused on military spending. Drained from Afghanistan.
Impact? Linked to…

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Impact? Collapse of surrounding communist regimes in
East Europe. Poland= Solidarity E. Germany= fall of Berlin
wall Czechoslovakia= velvet revolution, civic forum
Counter? Only possible due to Gorby's willingness.
Change from above catalyst for change from below. `People
power' only small role. If Gorby didn't choose to end B.D
and…

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