Slides in this set

Slide 1

Preview of page 1

Post Stalin Thaw…read more

Slide 2

Preview of page 2

New Leaders
· Stalin dies on the 5th March 1953
· Two months before his death, Dwight Eisenhower became US
president, he was voted because America wanted a tough approach
to communism
· NATO-1949
· Warsaw Pact-1955…read more

Slide 3

Preview of page 3

Peaceful Co-existence
· Hesitant move towards establishing a dialogue between the
· Under Khrushchev, it became a fully formed policy
· Khrushchev believed the downfall of communism was inevitable,
peaceful co-existence was the best way of conducting relations in the
mean time. Nuclear war was too dangerous, the two systems would
accept existence of each other in the short term. `there are only two
ways- either Peaceful Coexistence or the most destructive war in
history. There is not third way.'…read more

Slide 4

Preview of page 4

The Role of Eisenhower and Dulles-1952
· Critical of Truman's foreign policy
· Dulles talked of `rolling back' communism-more hard line approach
· `New look'-
· Belief the USSR and its allies were pursuing a communist expansionist policies
· Use of military means to contain communism
· `massive retaliation'-much greater role of nuclear weapons
· Brinkmanship- on the verge without getting into war
· Increased use of covert operations
· Pressures that made the USA willing to reach an understanding with USSR-
· Eisenhower wanted to avoid nuclear annihilation
· He was cautious, he new money being spent on weapons could improve living standards
· 1954-12% of GNP spent on weapons
· 1958 data from U-2 spy planes, showed that the USA was superior to the USSR, this position of
strength meant Eisenhower was more willing to negotiate…read more

Slide 5

Preview of page 5

Kennedy 1961
· `Flexible Response'-move away from the emphasis on nuclear
weapons-wider range of strategies including conventional armed
forces, covert operations and economic aid
· Economic aid would be targeted at removing poverty and the
economic conditions that provided the breeding ground for
communism e.g. $20 billion was given to Latin America
· The army grew from 2.5 million in 1960 to 2.7 million in 1964
· Kennedy was still willing to negotiate with Soviet leaders…read more

Slide 6

Preview of page 6

· `Geneva spirit'
· End of the Korean War in 1953-new Soviet leadership put pressure Kim Il Sung to agree to a ceasefire
· January 1954, Berlin Foreign Ministers Conference- Molotov called for the creation of an all-German government out of those
in East and West to move towards reunification- the West rejected this
· Geneva Conference 1954- Dulles walked out because he thought it confirmed communism in north Vietnam
· 1955 USSR agreed to the reunification of Austria
· Geneva Summit 1955-first meeting since Potsdam, the issue of Germany came up again, Khrushchev was prepared to
dismantle NATO and Warsaw Pact, the West did not agree. Eisenhower called for an `open skies' agreement, spy planes could
fly over each other airspace. Khrushchev did not agree. Only agreement-cultural exchange.
· Khrushchev accepted an invitation to visit the USA 1959- wasn't allowed in Disneyland, suspicions that the government were
hiding launching pads in Disneyland. `We will bury you'
· Paris Summit 1960- collapsed when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over Soviet airspace
· Vienna Summit 1961- improvement from Paris, nothing was agreed, Khrushchev felt he could dominate Kennedy
· Each side recognised the other's sphere of influence removed the likelihood of intervention that could provoke war
· Improvement in relations between USSR and Yugoslavia- Cominform was dissolved
· Split with China- more disunity within the communist bloc…read more

Slide 7

Preview of page 7
Preview of page 7

Slide 8

Preview of page 8
Preview of page 8


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »