- Created by: PatrickWhiteford
- Created on: 29-03-19 11:46
How did Lenin view the press?
As being essential to advancing the revolution and securing communist control
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Prior to the revolution what had Lenin announced his intention to do?
Close down "bourgeois newspapers"
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What did Lenin believe that revolutionary success required?
Control of communications all over Russia
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What did the Decree on the Press do?
Gave the gov't emergency powers to close down any newspaper which supported a counter-revolution
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When was this announced?
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What else did Lenin do?
Created a state monopoly of advertising, ensured that only the gov't could publish ads
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What did the government nationalise in November 1917?
The Petrograd Telegraph Agency, gave the new government control of electronic means of communication
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What did Lenin establish in January 1918?
A Revolutionary Tribunal of the Press; had the power to censor the press
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What would happen to journalists who committed crimes against the people?
They would be punished by the Cheka
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What did punishment by the Cheka mean?
The Cheka could impose fines or prison sentences, confiscate property or exile offending writers
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What was the All-Russia Telegraph Agency?
It was solely responsible for distributing news
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Who did Lenin initially target?
Only newspapers that supported the Tsar or the Provisional Government
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By mid-1918 what did his policy change to?
Outlawing opposition socialist newspapers as well
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By 1921 how many newspapers had the Communists closed?
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What else aided control of the press?
Economic controls introduced under War Communism; allowed the gov't to control all stocks of paper
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What was a result of these policies?
Pravda, the official Communist Party newspaper, gained a higher circulation
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By the 1920s what was Pravda?
One of the highest selling publications in the Soviet Union
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What could the communist regime initially be described as?
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Before 1928 what was notable about communist policy?
There was a high degree of debate about how communist policy should be put into place
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What was an example of an early form of propaganda?
Photographs of Lenin
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What did Lenin think of the cult of Lenin?
He didn't like it
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When was the first photo of Lenin published?
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How was Lenin depicted following an assassination attempt?
As a Christlike figure who was willing to suffer for his people
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What did many senior communists believe?
Ordinary workers and peasants needed a very simple message that they could understand
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What did other communists support?
The use of techniques similar to those used by the Orthodox Church and the Tsar
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What did these include?
A focus on a good and kind leader
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What were produced during the Civil War?
Busts and statues of Lenin, even though resources were scarce
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What titles did Lenin's photograph appear with?
"Leader of the Revolutionary Proletariat"
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How did Lenin start being presented from 1919?
Depicted as being humane, a man of the people, a visionary and a man of great power
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Why was Lenin photographed with a cap?
It made him seem approachable
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Why did Lenin allow these trends to continue?
Understood their importance and therefore allowed the cult to grow
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What did the cult of Lenin achieve?
It gave the Communist Party a face, someone the Russian people could identify with and support
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Who did the government collaborate with to produce posters supporting the revolution?
Avant garde artists
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What was one example of one of these?
"A Spectre is Haunting Europe, the Spectre of Communism"
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What did Gustav Klustis use photomontage to do?
Create posters advertising Lenin's electrification plan
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What is photomontage?
A combination of different photographs brought together to create a single photograph
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What did Dzerzhinsky introduce during the Civil War?
Glavlit, a new organisation which oversaw a more systematic censorship regime
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What was the GPU put in charge of?
Policing every publication available in the Soviet Union
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How did censorship increase?
New professional censors were employed
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What did the GPU do?
Compiled a list of banned books
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What happened as a result of Glavlit's work?
Soviet libraries were purged of politically dangerous books, were placed in "Book Gulags" instead
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What was the trend with censorship under Stalin?
Censorship under Stalin was tightened
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What was edited under Stalin?
Lenin's works to emphasise Stalin's role in the revolution; Stalin's works themselves to remove any evidence that he was close to those he purged
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How was Soviet history rewritten?
To remove the contribution of Stalin's opponents and to emphasise Stalin's role in the revolution
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From 1928, what did Glavlit control?
Access to economic data
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What were the Soviet media forbidden from publishing?
Stories about natural disasters, suicides, industrial accidents or even bad weather
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What did the propaganda surrounding Stalin turn him into?
A semi-divine figure whose wisdom would lead the nation to socialism
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What did Socialist Realist art portray?
Focused on archetypal Soviet workers; showed Soviet citizens to be muscular and heroic
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What was an example of a Socialist Realist sculpture?
"The Worker and the Collective Farm Woman" (1937)
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What changed the face of Soviet media in the 1950s and 1960s?
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What was an example of a consumer magazine?
Rabotnitsa (Woman Worker)
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What were magazines encouraged to publish?
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What did reader's letters often expose?
Profound problems and dissatisfaction with Soviet society
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What did citizens writing to Rabotnitsa criticise?
Male alcoholism, inequalities in the home relating to childcare and housework, domestic violence
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How did Khrushchev's media respond?
Campaigns against worthless men
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What did Krokodil make fun of?
Men who arrived at parades drunk, late or not at all
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How did Soviet cinema differ under Khrushchev?
Focused on traditional Soviet themes such as victory in the Civil War and WW2, yet focused on ordinary people
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What did films under Stalin focus on?
The achievements of Stalin
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What was an example of a film under Khrushchev?
The Cranes are Flying (1957)
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How did television support the Soviet regime under Khrushchev?
Celebrated the USSR's triumphs in the Space Race
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What attracted millions of Soviet viewers in 1961?
A five hour documentary on Yuri Gagarin's first space flight
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What did television coverage of Valentina Tereshkova feature?
Emphasised her ordinariness, born and raised on a collective farm
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What did television broadcast in 1961?
The nation's first television news show
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What was this called?
Estafeta Novosteo (News and Mail)
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What were films like under Brezhnev?
Like K, focused more on ordinary people leading their lives; focused on fashionable people living in stylish apartments
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Why did they focus on consumerism?
Stoke public interest in consumer goods
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How did Brezhnev attempt to use television to his advantage?
Kept tight control on footage of the War in Afghanistan
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How was Brezhnev presented in the media?
Made sure his speeches were transmitted in full, was always at the centre of media coverage
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Why did this backfire?
In TV footage, Brezhnev was clearly physically withering and ageing
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What was Brezhnev's last ever TV transmission?
Showed him struggling to walk up the steps to the Lenin Mausoleum
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What also happened under Brezhnev?
Soviet leaders lost control of the print media
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What became increasingly available?
Western consumer magazines such as Vogue
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Why was this an issue?
Such magazines undermined the Soviet system by showing the quality of Western goods
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What did Stalin's cult of personality emphasise?
His legitimacy as ruler, created a figure that Soviet citizens could trust, respect and even worship
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What was the "Myth of Two Leaders"?
Soviet people believed that the October Revolution, victory in the Civil War and the foundation of the state itself came from both Lenin and Stalin
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What did this require?
Soviet history to be extensively rewritten
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What was published in 1938?
Two histories of the Communist Party; both edited by Stalin
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What did Socialist Realist paintings depict?
Stalin working closely with Lenin
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How were photographs altered?
Trotsky and other former leaders were taken out of pictures with Lenin
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What did the cult of Stalin also imply?
That Stalin was continuing the work of lenin
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What did Grigory Shegal's "Leader, Teacher, Friend" depict?
Stalin standing immediately in front of a bust of Lenin
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What did Gustav Klutsis' photomontages show?
A row of figures running from Marx, through Lenin, to Stalin
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What did this suggest?
Stalin was the latest in a long line of revolutionary leaders
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What did Stalin become known as?
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What does this mean?
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What is the significance of the term Vozhd?
Vozhd has no legal significance, unlike President or Prime Minister
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What does this mean?
The powers of the vozhd have no obvious limit
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Following the Second World War how was Stalin depicted?
As the Generalissimo
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What did this reflect?
Growing reverence of Stalin as a military figure
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How was Stalin presented before the Second World War?
A revolutionary and a thinker
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How was Stalin painted in his final years?
Wearing a white military uniform
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What was the significance of this?
Stalin designed the uniform for himself and the rank of Generalissimo was created just for Stalin
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What did Khrushchev revive?
The cult of Lenin
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What was the Lenin of the Khrushchev cult like?
Fun, approachable, humane, a person who lived children, family and lived a simple life
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What slogan did the Lenin cult under Khrushchev have?
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Why did the cult of Khrushchev focus on Lenin?
It reminded Soviet citizens that the state was founded on Lenin's revolution not Stalin's terror; shifted from Stalinism
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From 1958, what did Khrushchev have?
A personality cult of his own
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How did Khrushchev's cult portray Khrushchev?
A disciple of Lenin completing the journey Lenin had started
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A hero of the Second World War
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A respected statesman who negotiated with the USA as an equal
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And finally, what else?
The great reformer who was perfecting the Soviet system
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What problems emerged with the cult of Khrushchev?
By associating himself so strongly with the successes of the Virgin Lands Scheme he was damaged by its failure
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What led to a collapse in faith in the Khrushchev government?
Embarrassing foreign policy failures, failure to deliver on wildly optimistic promises about out-producing the USA
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Why did Brezhnev decide that he needed a cult of personality?
For pragmatic reasons; the cult of personality had become an essential feature of Soviet politics
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What did Brezhnev's cult emphasise?
He was a great Leninist following Lenin's example
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What else did it emphasise?
Brezhnev was a true man of the people, he worked as an engineer in the steel industry
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What else did Brezhnev emphasise?
His role as a military hero
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What title did Brezhnev receive?
Promoted to Marshal of the Red Army, won 60 medals
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What else did the cult of Brezhnev emphasise?
He was dedicated to ensuring world peace with the USA
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Why did Brezhnev's cult inspire cynicism?
Young people knew the size of the Soviet military, were not taken in by claims of world peace
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The lavish and luxurious lifestyle of Brezhnev and his family inspired resentment at his claims to be a man of the people
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What did this lead to Brezhnev becoming?
The **** of numerous jokes
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What did Marx famously say about religion?
It was the "opium of the masses"
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What did Lenin and Marxist radicals believe the revolution would do?
Liberate working people from the delusions of religion
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Why was Lenin critical of the Russian Orthodox Church?
It was seen to be an essential ally of the Tsar, the Orthodox Church was an extremely rich institution
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What was un-communist about Orthodox Priests?
Some priests lived lives of immense privilege while the working people were poor
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Why else was the Communist gov't suspicious of organised religion?
Religions stood for values that were sometimes opposed to communist values; religious groups were organisations that were independent of the Communist gov't
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Where in the Soviet Union were there sizeable Islamic communities?
Central Asia, the North Caucasus, Azerbaijan
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What did Lithuania have?
A large Roman Catholic community
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What was there in Ukraine?
A significant Baptist minority
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What did the earliest communist laws reflect?
A commitment to legal equality of all people regardless of their religious beliefs
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What happened at the same time?
A campaign of terror against the Orthodox Church
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What did the October 1917 Decree on Land give?
The right for peasants to seize land belonging to the church
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What was the January 1918 Decree Concerning Separation of Church and State?
Church lost its privileged position in society, church land, buildings and property were nationalised
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What did this decree ban?
Religious education was banned in schools
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What did the 1922 Soviet Constitution guarantee?
Freedom of conscience for all Soviet people
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In practice, what happened to religious freedom?
Was seriously compromised by Lenin's measures
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Although the right existed in law, Soviet courts couldn't enforce it
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What happened to Metropolitan Vladimir in 1918?
He was tortured and shot in Kiev
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What happened in 1918?
A more extreme order was issued, Cheka allowed to begin the mass execution of priests
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Why were Roman Catholic priests treated differently?
They had traditionally been a persecuted minority; did not back the Tsar
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What happened to them?
They were deported, executions only began with the start of the Civil War
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How else did the Bolsheviks target the Church?
Soviet authorities seized church assets to fund famine relief; launched a propaganda war against the church
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What did Communists justify under the Decree concerning separation of Church and State?
Seizing the property of waqfs - Islamic foundations and charities
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However, what happened next?
Policy reversed, waqfs continued to fund Islamic schools, Communist leaders encouraged Muslims to join the Party
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What does this represent?
The contradictory nature of Soviet policy towards Islam
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Why were Soviet leaders less antagonistic towards Islam?
There had been no official link between Islam and Tsarism
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How did the communists aim to undermine the Orthodox Church?
Through the creation of the Living Church
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What did the Living Church claim to be?
A reformed version of the old Orthodox Church in which the people had the power
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What did the Living Church organise in 1923?
A national congress which deposed Patriarch Tikhon
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Why did they do this?
Split the church, take away its central leader, weaken its national structure
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What was the issue with Archbishop Vedenskii?
He was not prepared to support the communists; in 1923 he publicly debated science and religion with Anatoly Lunacharsky and won
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What did this lead to in 1925?
The Communist Party stopped public debates
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What did the split fail to achieve?
It did not diminish Church growth, nor faith in saints and miracles
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Why did the Communists launch campaigns against Islam?
They claimed that Islam infringed women's rights, encouraged "crimes based upon custom", had the loyalty of many people in the Caucasus
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How did the Soviet authorities attack Islam?
Closed mosques, turning them into storage depots or sports clubs; attacked Islamic shrines; discouraged pilgrimage
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During the collectivisation drive, what were Stalin's policies on the church?
Ordered the closure of many churches throughout the country because they aided resistance to his policies
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What did Stalin do outside of Russia?
Set targets for the number of people from different ethnic groups that he wanted purged
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What did the NKVD attack?
Jadids and Sufi groups who were dedicated to saving Islam
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What had happened by the end of 1936?
Sufi groups, including in Turkestan, had been destroyed
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However, what did they fail at?
In spite of the claims of Soviet propaganda, Islam survived and women kept the traditions going
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Why did Stalin make a pragmatic alliance with the church during the Second World War?
Thought it would appeal to the patriotism of the Russian people and inspire them to fight
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Why was the Russian Orthodox Church so important?
It was linked to Russian national identity; as patriotism re-awoke it was natural for Russians to look to the church
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What else did the church provide?
All families faced losing loved ones, Church provided comfort for bereaved families
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Why was it important for soldiers?
They found comfort in the thought that God would welcome them into heaven
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What did one soldier comment?
There was more comfort and inspiration in a few of Jesus's words than in the entire works of Marx and Lenin
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What did Metropolitan Sergey urge Russians to do?
Fight for the motherland, proclaimed Stalin "God's chosen leader"
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How did Soviet policy change during the war?
Anti-religious propaganda ceased
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What was an example of this?
The closure of the communist magazine Bezbozhnik (The Godless)
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What did Stalin promise to do?
End the censorship of religious magazines following the war
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What else did Stalin promised to do?
Re-open churches closed by the government
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How many churches re-opened in the final year of the war?
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How much did the priesthood grow by from 1946 to 1948?
9,254 in 1946: 11,827 in 1948
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What else increased following 1945?
Numbers of Baptists, Pentecostalists and Jehovah's Witnesses
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What did Khrushchev see part of his mission as being?
Reviving the anti-religious campaigns of the 1920s
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What did Protestant Churches prophesy in the mid-1950s?
The Soviet regime would end within a generation
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How did Khrushchev resume the anti-religious campaign?
Churches re-opened during the Second World War were closed; Catholic monasteries were closed in 1959; anti-religious magazines were reintroduced
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What did Yuri Gagarin famously comment?
Having been into space, he saw no God
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Why did Khrushchev's campaigns particularly target women?
Government records showed that two thirds of Orthodox churchgoers were women
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What was Khrushchev concerned about?
Mothers passing their religious beliefs onto their children
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Why were there campaigns against nuns?
They were accused of not following their natural duty by becoming wives and mothers
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How did K aim to reduce religious women significantly?
Banned women-only church and Islamic groups
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What were schoolteachers expected to convey?
An antireligious message
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What is evidence of the partial success of Khrushchev's reforms?
The number of Orthodox Church buildings fell from 8000 in 1958 to 5000 in 1964
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How did women resist?
Some marched, some circulated pamphlets defending Christianity or Islam, others took their children out of schools
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What could this be described as?
A new dissident campaign
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What did Brezhnev advocate?
Ending Khrushchev's suppression of religion, instead endorsing the spreading of atheism
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What did Brezhnev do?
Ended Khrushchev's policy of church closures
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What opened in 1968?
The Institute for Scientific Atheism, advised teachers how to spread atheism in the classroom
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How was Islam described?
A "backwards and barbarian" religion
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What did the government under Brezhnev do?
Start supporting anti-American groups
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What did the Soviet government describe Islam as from the 1960s?
A "progressive, anticolonial and revolutionary creed"
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What were the effects of Brezhnev's campaign?
No decline in the number of people professing a religious faith; remained at 20% from 1960 to 1985
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What was the Spiritual Board of Muslims of Central Asia?
Allowed Soviet Islamic leaders and scholars to have contact with other Muslims
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Why did Lenin believe that terror was a legitimate part of the revolution?
It had been used by the French during the French Revolution
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What did Lenin state that he hoped terror would be?
Less significant than French revolutionary terror
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How else did Lenin view political terror?
As a temporary measure, that should be abandoned once the revolution was over
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What was the Cheka?
Lenin's secret police; embodied Lenin's views on revolutionary violence
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Who did the Cheka target?
Counter-revolutionaries; those who opposed the Bolsheviks
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Who led the Cheka from 1917 to 1926?
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What was the role of the Cheka?
To defend control in communist-held areas
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What was the role of the Red Army by contrast?
Responsible for defending and enlarging Communist-held territory
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Who did the Cheka attack?
Capitalists and socialists
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What was an example of this?
In January 1918 the Cheka closed the Constituent Assembly, the democratically elected Parliament
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Who dominated the Constituent Assembly?
The Social Revolutionaries: the Bolsheviks' main rivals
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What was the Cheka's constitution?
They were not bound by laws, rather they dispensed arbitrary revolutionary justice
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How did the Cheka help the Bolsheviks in their consolidation of power?
Helped with grain requisitioning, closed down opposition newspapers, used extreme violence to silence dissent
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What were examples of the extreme violence used by the Cheka?
Crucified priests, froze members of the White Army to death, others were buried alive
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How did the Cheka support the Red Army's attack on the Kronstadt Naval Base?
Cheka agents with machine guns were positioned behind Red Army soldiers, instructed to shoot any soldiers who refused to fight
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How did they help out under War Communism?
Stopped private trading, which had been outlawed
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How did the Cheka's position change after the Civil War?
Terror against opponents on a much smaller scale as socialism was not consolidated
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Who was Lenin suspicious of?
Intellectuals and experts who did not fully support the government
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How did this manifest itself?
Lenin ordered Dzerzhinsky to supervise the deportation of professors and engineers that he suspected of anti-communist sympathies
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What did Lenin order Dzerzhinsky to do?
In 1922, Lenin ordered Dzerzhinsky to set up an agency within the GRU to monitor the press
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What did Dzerzhinsky do in addition to this?
Kept former Tsarist officers, who now served in the Red Army, under surveillance
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What did the GRU do more generally?
Monitor public opinion
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How did they do this?
Had the power to intercept post and other forms of communication; GPU kept intellectuals and students under scrutiny
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Why were the government worried about students and intellectuals?
Might not support the government, had a privileged, almost bourgeois position in society
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Where were GPU surveillance reports submitted?
To the Central Committee; also reported moral problems such as drunkenness, gambling, and other signs of inequality
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Why did Lenin want political trials of opponents?
He feared that the NEP's compromise with capitalism would lead to his government being overthrown
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What did Dzerzhinsky organise in 1922?
The trial of the Socialist Revolutionary leaders; they were accused of treason, sabotage and plotting to overthrow the Soviet state
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What were they sentenced to at the trial of August 1922?
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What happened, however?
Most were only imprisoned, and were only executed under the Stalinist terror of the 1930s
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How did the GPU police morality during the 1920s?
Imprisoned Nepmen who had grown too rich; harassed women who dressed in Western styles; persecuted priests
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Why did the GPU act against these activities in spite of the fact there were no laws against them?
They were the guardians of the revolution, could act arbitrarily against perceived class enemies
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How did the secret police change under Stalin?
Stalin used the terror against the Party
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What was the first purge against the Party?
The Chistka of 1921: 220,000 Party members were purged
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When was Genrikh Yagoda appointed?
Appointed head of the NKVD in July 1934
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What was he responsible for following Kirov's death?
Leading the hunt for enemy members of the Party
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What were the successes of Yagoda?
Organised the arrest, interrogation and trial of Zinoviev and Kamenev
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Yet what did Stalin think?
Stalin wanted to use the opportunity created by the murder of Kirov to move against Bukharin and Trotsky's supporters
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What was wrong with Yagoda's terror of 1935 and 1936?
It was not unusual by Soviet standards
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How was Yagoda's appointment as NKVD chief mark a change?
Collaborated with Stalin in turning the NKVD against the Communist Party
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How did terror change under Yezhov?
Expanded to include all of Soviet government
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What new doctrine did Stalin use to justify expanding the terror?
The doctrine of sharpening class struggle
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What did this mean?
As socialism advanced, capitalists fought harder which intensified the class struggle
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What changes were made to terror under Yezhov?
Targets were set for arrests, executions and deportations; NKVD was purged; new NKVD agents recruited
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Why was the NKVD purged?
Many NKVD agents had been communists since 1918; were loyal to the Party and sometimes Stalin's enemies; could be opposed to the use of terror
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Why were new NKVD agents recruited?
New agents had no loyalty to the Party; no ideological opposition to the terror; many simply enjoyed the violence and power
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What was the conveyor belt system of obtaining confessions?
Groups of NKVD agents would work in shifts to torture the NKVD's victims; meant torture and interrogation could continue until prisoners confessed
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What did this new method lead to?
The Trial of the 17 and the Trial of the 21
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What was Yezhovschina?
During this period, the terror attacked all elements of Soviet life; the Party, the army, industry and collective farms
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What did historian Donald Rayfield describe the period of 1937/1938 as being?
The "Yezhov Bloodbath"
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What proportion of the Soviet population were purged?
Around 1.5 million, or 10% of the adult male population were arrested by the NKVD
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What happened to these people?
635,000 were deported, often to Siberia; 680,000 were executed
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What were the results of Yezhovschina?
Mass arrests of government officials left entire apartment blocks empty
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Who was targeted by the terror?
Urban educated men between the ages of 30 and 45 holding senior positions within the government
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What statistic backs this up?
95% of those targeted were men, only 5% were women.
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In what way was the terror largely a local initiative?
Workers and peasants organised their own show trials; NKVD agents demanded higher targets
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What happened in Kazan, for instance?
Communist officials were tried for misusing funds
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How was the terror a success for Stalin?
Stalin removed everyone who could claim authority independently of Lenin; Stalin replaced these officials with his own supporters
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What economic problems did the terror cause?
Deporting and executing factory managers, economic planners and government officials removed the experts needed to run Stalin's command economy
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What economic effect did this lead to?
During the first years of the Third Five-Year Plan production rates either declined or stagnated
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What happened to Yagoda and Yezhov?
Yagoda tried as part of the Trial of the 21; Yezhov and over 300 of his closest associates were shot in 1940
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What did Yezhov claim?
His only crime was not killing enough Russians
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Who replaced Yezhov as head of the NKVD?
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What were Beria and the NKVD responsible for?
Policing the Soviet Union's ethnic minorities, groups that Stalin feared would side with the USSR's main enemies
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What happened to the Kalmyks?
Ordered the mass deportation of them to Siberia; only 53,000 of the original 130,000 survived
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What happened to Chechens in 1944?
Beria ordered the deportation of all 460,000 Chechens from their homeland in Chechnya; Chechens unable or unwilling to leave were locked in their barns and burned alive
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How many deaths did the deportations result in?
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What did the NKVD do in 1945?
Interrogated the 1.5 million prisoners of war who had been liberated from Germany
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Stalin viewed them as traitors for allowing themselves to be captured rather than to fight to the death
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What was the Leningrad Affair?
In 1949, Stalin launched a purge against officials in the Leningrad Party, around 200 party members were arrested and forced to confess to crimes against the Party
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What was the Doctors' Plot?
Many of Stalin's medical staff were arrested for trying to poison Stalin; Stalin died before the doctors could be released
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What happened three months after Stalin's death?
It was decided that there would be no more terror, Beria was arrested and executed for treason and terrorism
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What did Khrushchev proudly proclaim in 1959?
"There are no political prisoners in the Soviet Union, only prisoners of unsound mind"
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What were heads of the KGB like during the Khrushchev Period?
Heads of the KGB were low profile, and the job had become a dead end as it no longer led to positions of power within the government
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How did Brezhnev's leadership differ from Khrushchev's?
Brezhnev was suspicious of cultural freedom
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How did Andropov's role differ from previous secret police chiefs?
Goal was the control of dissidents through a minimum of violence
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What was there no return to?
The mass terror of the Stalin period
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What was Andropov keen to do?
Expose and prosecute corruption in the Communist Party; yet Brezhnev did not agree with this
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What was KGB Order No. 0051?
Set out a policy of increased surveillance
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How did the west react to the trial of artists?
With outcry, demanded the preservation of artistic freedom
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How did this influence Andropov's policy?
He adopted more subtle ways of dealing with dissidents, avoiding adverse publicity
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What reforms did Andropov bring in to ensure the KGB could deal with dissidents?
Promoted KGB agents from across the whole of the Soviet Union; established Directorate V to deal with dissidents
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How did Andropov deal with dissidents?
High-profile dissidents were allowed to emigrate
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Who ended up emigrating?
A number of famous artists; policy was extended and over 100,000 troublemakers were allowed to emigrate
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What motivated the policy of emigration?
Since the establishment of Israel, Soviet Jews campaigned for the right to move to the new state
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How had the Soviet leadership previously reacted to this?
They had refused; however Andropov reversed this policy
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How did Andropov justify changing the policy?
Jews only represented 1% of the population, yet 1/5 of writers and journalists were Jews
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Why was this significant?
Jews tended to work in the industries that produced dissidents the most often
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How did Andropov deal with less well known dissidents?
Repressive psychiatry; could be sent to psychiatric hospitals for treatment
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What did the government argue that dissent was?
A symptom of "paranoid reformist delusion"
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Why was this policy adopted?
Incarceration was indefinite; attracted less attention than sending someone to prison
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What else could be done?
Psychiatric patients could be prescribed medication to keep them quiet
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Who suffered from this practice?
Jehovah's Witnesses and Protestant Christians
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What happened in the early 1970s?
Rumours about the practice of repressive psychiatry reached the West
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What was Andrei Snezhnevsky able to persuade a delegation of American psychiatrists?
Soviet psychiatry was serving its patients well
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Why did Andropov change the emphasis of the KGB from repression to prevention?
Believed that Stalinist repression didn't work; growing belief in the Party that socialism was incompatible with widespread repression
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What new policy was adopted from November 1972?
Official warnings: dissidents were interviewed and warned to stop their unorthodox activities
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What would happen to these people?
They would be kept under surveillance
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How many Soviet citizens received an official warning during the 1970s?
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What did KGB agents estimate?
These warnings stopped the formation of around 2000 subversive groups in the early 1970s alone
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What happened if official warnings could not persuade dissidents to cease their activities?
They could be demoted or sacked from their jobs; exiled or sent to prison
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In the years 1965-67 how many dissidents were imprisoned?
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In the years 1968-70 how many dissidents were imprisoned?
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What does this show?
The number imprisoned increased under Andropov
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What's an example of a show trial used by Andropov?
The 1972 trial of Pyotr Yakir and Viktor Krasin, who ran the samizdat Chronicle of Current Events
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Who was Andrei Sakharov?
Came to prominence through the Soviet nuclear programme
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What did he do?
Led a campaign to expel Trofim Lysenko from the Party
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What did Sakharov do in 1968?
Circulated an essay, "Reflections on Progress" that argued that the Soviet Union should respect human rights
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What did this essay lead to?
It was published in the West and broadcast on the BBC
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Why were the Soviet authorities reluctant to persecute Sakharov?
He was well respected in the West and within the Soviet Union
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How did the KGB aim to intimidate Sakharov?
Restricted his right to travel, warned to stop his activities by the KGB
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How did this backfire?
Sakharov gave a full report of the intimidation to the New York Times
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What had happened by the end of 1968?
His case was so well known that the KGB could not arrest him
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What did the KGB do instead?
Orchestrated a press campaign against him
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What did Sakharov publish in 1975 and what did he win for it?
Published "My Country and the World", proposed the reform of the USSR on the basis of human rights, won Nobel Peace Prize
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What eventually happened to Sakharov?
He was sent into internal exile in the city of Gorky
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What two books was Solzhenitsyn famous for?
A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich; the Gulag Archipelago
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What did A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich describe?
The horrors of Stalin's prison camp system
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What did Solzhenitsyn receive?
The Nobel Prize for Literature
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What eventually happened to Solzhenitsyn?
Exiled to the USA in 1973
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What was the 1975 Helsinki Agreement?
Committed countries across Europe to respect human rights
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How did dissidents use this?
Argued that the Soviet Union had violated its obligations, which embarrassed the government
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What problems faced the Soviet Union in 1979 that led to more campaigns against dissidents?
Poor harvests, war in Afghanistan, growing corruption, failure of Brezhnev's talks with the USA
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What else led to the Law and Order campaign?
The approaching 1980 Moscow Olympics
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What did the Law and Order campaign entail?
Andropov attacked various forms of antisocial behaviour; including drunkenness, corruption and hooliganism
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What did Andropov become in 1982?
Soviet leader; succeeding Brezhnev
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What did the KGB continue to do?
Monitor public discontent
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How did KGB agents do this?
Striking up anti-government conversations with Soviet citizens; tapping phones and mail
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What was Andropov concerned about?
Growing anti-communist feeling in Eastern Europe; particularly in Poland where rising food prices had led to mass strikes
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What did Andropov use this to justify?
A series of authoritarian policies
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What led to a growth in popular discontent in the late 1970s?
Slow improvements in standards of living, dissatsifaction with the availability and quality of consumer goods
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Insufficient opportunities for promotion within Soviet industry; resented the privileges of Party members and managers
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Why were these problems serious?
Since 1964, Soviet rule had been based on the "social contract"
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What was the social contract?
People supported communist rule in exchange for a growth in the standard of living
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What was evidence of social malaise?
Increase in alcoholism; poor labour discipline; avoidance of military service; demand for black market goods
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How did Andropov respond?
Tightened discipline to tackle malaise
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What did some reports show?
Some Soviet citizens supported a return to Stalinist discipline
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How did Andropov tackle corruption?
Andropov investigated senior party officials and industrial managers who were using Soviet resources to make themselves rich
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Who was targeted?
Brezhnev's Minister of the Interior, Nikolai Shchelokov, was put on trial for corruption
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What was Andropov's anti-alcohol campaign?
Workers could be sacked for drunkenness/ could be fined for damaging machinery or products if they were drunk at work
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What was Operation Trawl?
An anti-drunkenness and anti-absenteeism campaign; KGB officers visited parks and railway stations to arrest those who were drunk or absent from work
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How successful was Operation Trawl?
Led to less absenteeism in the short term
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Who replaced Andropov in 1984?
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How did Chernenko view Andropov's policies?
Continued the policy of workplace discipline, scaled back the anti-corruption campaign to protect his supporters
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What was art like following the October Revolution?
Art flourished, artists were inspired by the creation of a new form of art
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However, what debate had emerged?
What should proletarian art look like?
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What was Lenin's view on art?
Very interested in the potential of art to further the cause of the revolution
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What was Lenin particularly interested in?
The political potential of cinema
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What was Bukharin's role?
He was a champion of artistic expression; also played a leading role in Soviet politics
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What did Lunacharsky argue that revolutionary culture should look like?
Proletarian culture should flourish
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What did Lenin believe that revolutionary culture should look like?
Should borrow from the best of bourgeois culture
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What was Lunacharsky's view of proletarian culture?
Should reflect the experience of working people
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What did Lunacharsky argue that bourgeois culture was?
Reflected individualism and therefore capitalism
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What was Proletkult?
Gave working people access to studios where they could sculpt, paint and rehearse plays
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By 1920, what was membership of Proletkult?
84,000 people across 300 studios
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What did Proletkult establish?
The monthly Gom (Furnace) magazine
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What was crucially true about Proletkult?
It was independent of Communist Party control
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What were Bukharin's views of Proletkult?
Used his position as editor of Pravda to support the organisation
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What were Lenin's views of Proletkult?
Critical of the philosophy behind Proletkult
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What were Lenin's concerns about Proletkult?
It was encouraging artists to embrace Futurism
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Why did Lenin not like Futurism?
He thought it was degenerate, celebrated individual self-expression, most working people couldn't understand it
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As the Civil War progressed, why did Lenin's views on Proletkult change?
He believed it was dominated by socialists from opposition groups such as anarchists
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What else did Lenin think?
Continued artistic expression was a danger to the revolution; peasants needed a basic education not opportunities for artistic expression
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What did Lenin do in October 1920?
Lenin sent representatives to the National Congress of Proletkult
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What did the Congress vote for?
Following an appeal for Proletkult to support the communist government; voluntarily merged with the Commissariat of Education
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What happened to dissenting artists who wished to remain independent?
They were criticised in the Soviet press
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What happened following the merger?
Gov't funds were redirected to fund traditional arts such as the ballet
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What was established in 1920?
The Department of Agitation Propaganda
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What was this Department?
A department of the Communist Party
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Why was this established?
Lenin and Trotsky believed that art could be used to inspire people to support the new government
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What was established in the same year?
Glavpolitprosvet; a department of the Commissar of Enlightenment
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What was Agitprop?
Designed to support the government; produced by avant-garde artists working for the government
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What was the style of Agitprop?
Much more experimental than Lenin was happy with
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What was an example of a notable Agitprop poster?
"Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge"
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Who was this by?
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What style did this resemble?
The suprematist work of Kazimir Malevich
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What did this form the basis of?
A sculpture unveiled at Moscow State University in October 1918
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Where was agitprop propaganda displayed?
In shop windows or on the side of Agitprop trains
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What was another example of agitprop propaganda?
Vladimir Tatlin's "Monument for the Third International"
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What was this designed to be?
The tallest monument in the world
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What was its design?
Designed to be made from geometric shapes that moved at different rates
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Who was Alexander Rodchenko?
A famous avant-garde photographer
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What was Rodchenko's work like?
Used photomontage to make posters celebrating the revolution
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What was Constructivism?
A Russian artistic movement that sought to produce art with a clear purpose
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What did Rodchenko do during the NEP?
Used his talents to create advertising posters for companies
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What did Lenin believe about cinema?
Should be used to inspire support for the new government, would be the prevailing art form of the 20th century
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What was a sign of the success of Soviet cinema?
In the 1920s, although camera equipment was scarce, Soviet cinema flourished
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Who were examples of Soviet filmmakers?
Dziga Vertov and Sergei Eisenstein
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What was Vertov's style of cinema like?
Rejected the use of sets, scripts and actors, filmed "Kino-pravda" (film-truth) of people going about with day-to-day life
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What was Vertov's most famous film?
A Man with a Movie Camera (1929)
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How did Pravda describe his films?
"Laughable", "insane" and "puzzling"
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What were Eisenstein's films like?
Agitational films that used more conventional style; scripts, sets and actors
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What were some examples of Eisenstein's films?
Strike (1925), Battleship Potemkin and October: 10 Days that Shook the World
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What were Eistenstein's films influenced by?
Futurism, contained references to Futurism and abstract art
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Why was Eisenstein criticised in the late 1920s?
Too experimental; could not be understood by peasants
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What happened to Eisenstein's films in the 1930s?
They were edited to take out reference to Trotsky
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What could generally be said about the period during the NEP?
There was a relatively large degree of creative freedom
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What happened during the Civil War?
Preoccupied with winning the Civil War, therefore there was a loose control of artists
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What happened when the Civil War came to an end?
Lenin clamped down on artistic expression; Proletkult was targeted
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Why was this?
According to most senior communists, peasants and workers could not understand avant garde art
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What did Kazimir Malevich do in 1927?
Sent his most radical paintings to Germany and adopted a more conventional style
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What happened to the Petrograd State Institute of Artistic Culture?
It was forced to close in 1926 when Pravda claimed it was using state funds to encourage individualism and debauchery
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What was the concern about jazz and the "Flapper" style?
Encouraged promiscuity and moral problems
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What were they concerned about?
Young people would rather dance than attend lectures on revolutionary politics
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What did the Communist Party do from the mid-1920s?
Used the OGPU to break up parties where jazz was played
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What was the Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia?
Artists who painted in the traditional style of 19th century painters and supported the new government
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What was an example of a work by this group?
Aleksandr Deyneka's "The Defence of Petrograd" won the praise of Party officials
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What did Stalin argue in a 1930 article in The Bolshevik?
Soviet art should reflect government priorities rather than individual creativity
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What else described Stalin's views on art?
Suspicious of the experimental and the avant-garde; criticised non-narrative films arguing peasants couldn't understand them
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What was established in 1932?
The Union of Soviet Writers
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What emerged at this time?
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How did Ivan Kulik define socialist realism?
Contained a "true reflection of reality", aimed to "participate in the building of socialism"
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What did this come to mean for paintings?
They looked like photographs and depicted factory construction or workers producing raw materials
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What was an example in literature?
Fyodor Gladkov's 1924 novel "Cement"
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What was this novel about?
Tells the story of a group of cement workers who, having played a major role in the Civil War, reconstruct a cement factory
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What was Soviet ballet influenced by in the 1920s?
Futurism; therefore dance moves were angular
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What was the Steel Step in 1925?
A ballet that aimed to celebrate Soviet industrialisation; music written by Prokofiev
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How did ballet change under Stalin?
It became more traditional
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What was Leonid Lavrosky's 1940 ballet?
Romeo and Juliet, praised by the Soviet press for telling stories that were accessible to working people
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What was artistic production like under Stalin?
Art was produced in a similar way to other goods, quotas were set for artistic production
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What were artists forced to do?
Go to collective farms and record what they saw
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What did Alexander Gerasimov say about the terror?
It created a "creative atmosphere of enthusiasm among the entire mass of artists"
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What happened to artists during the Great Purge?
Artists were purged
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What did Soviet artists produce to celebrate the opening of a ball bearing factory?
A ball bearing ten metres in diameter
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What was Gustav Klustis' "In the Storm of the Third Year of the Five Year Plan"?
A painting portraying heroic workers mining
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What did "Voting to Expel the Kulak from the Collective Farm" show?
Popular support for dekulakisation
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What's an example of another famous painting from this period?
Feodor Shurpin's "Morning of Our Motherland"
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What does this painting depict?
Stalin in a landscape transformed by collectivisation and industrialisation
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What did sculpture focus on?
Again, the process of building socialism
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What was Sergey Merkurov famous for creating?
Giant statues of Lenin and Stalin
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What was musical style like under Stalin?
He praised the music for the film Maxim's Youth (1953)
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Why did Stalin like the music?
It could be sung by ordinary people
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What was an example of Shostakovich's music that Stalin liked?
Shostakovich's "Suite on Finnish Themes"
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What was one way of dissenting from Stalin's cult of personality?
Making a film about Lenin
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What was an example of this?
Dziga Vertov's "Three Songs about Lenin"
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What did Khrushchev's policy on art go through?
A set of "thaws" and "freezes"
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What was the first thaw?
Following Stalin's death, there was an early thaw (1953-54)
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When was the second thaw?
Following Khrushchev's secret speech in 1956 there was another period of cultural liberalisation
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When was the third thaw?
Following the Twenty-Second Party Congress and the vote to remove Stalin's body from Red Square, a number of books were published that criticised Stalin's rule
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What was an example of a novel produced during the first thaw?
The Thaw by Ilya Ehrenburg
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What was this novel critical of?
Many elements of Stalinism; including mass terror
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What was an example of a novel produced during the second thaw?
Vladimir Dudintsev's novel "Not By Bread Alone"
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What does this novel deal with?
An innovative workers' battles against the unjust party bureaucracy
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What was an example of a novel produced during the third thaw?
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's novel "A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich"
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What does this novel deal with?
It tells the story of the life of a prisoner in the Gulag
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What was performed for the first time since 1936?
Dmitri Shostakovich's opera Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk was performed
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Why was this play not performed?
Stalin had criticised it
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How did music undergo a thaw at this time?
During the World Youth Festival, young people danced to jazz and African drumming
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What happened in terms of classical music?
Western composers such as George Gershwin were taught in schools in the late 1950s
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What led to a freeze at the end of the initial thaw?
Boris Pasternak's Doctor Zhivago
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Why did Doctor Zhivago lead to a freeze?
It was critical of Lenin's period as ruler
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How did Khrushchev react to Ernst Neizvestny's exhibition?
He shouted loudly that the work was "dog ****"
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Who was arrested in January 1964?
The poet Josef Brodsky
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How had propaganda depicted Soviet citizens during Stalin's rule?
Soviet people had been depicted as heroic and conventionally beautiful
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How did the new propaganda posters depict those who didn't conform?
Comically bald, fat and lazy
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What did "The Alcoholic" (1959) depict?
A drunk man lying in a pool of his own vomit
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How did popular oversight work?
Citizens were expected to keep other citizens under surveillance
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However, what were they encouraged to do?
Intervene with helpful moral advice, rather than reporting them to the police
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What did the poster "When Two Girls Met" (1963) depict?
How a good, working class upbringing leads to a disciplined child, whereas the children of indulgent intellectual parents grow up to be lazy and selfish
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What does "The Cowshed" (1958) depict?
It pokes fun at the inefficiencies of Soviet farms by showing two cows living in a palace, complete with chandeliers
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What was Khrushchev's government worried about?
Women would be seduced by consumerism into lives of reckless shopping and glamour
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What did the government assume about fashionable clothes?
They implied sexual promiscuity
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What did this lead to?
Campaigns against "loose women" in the late 1950s and 1960s
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What did the 1957 World Youth Festival lead to concerns about?
Young Soviet women having sex with delegates from foreign countries
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What did Soviet authorities notably not consider to be a problem?
Soviet men having sex with foreign women
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What did squads of Party members do during the festival?
Patrolled the streets, shaved the heads of young Soviet women they caught having sex with foreign men
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What happened to some of these women?
They were deported to the Virgin Lands for their crimes
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Why did women's lifestyles worry policy makers?
Due to rising rates of abortion, teen pregnancy and the many "children of the festival"
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What else worried policy makers?
The emergence of female sexual desire; which they argued did not exist
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What did welfare policies aim to attract women towards?
Marriage and childbearing as a more healthy expression of their sexuality
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How was planned production of consumer goods used to constrain women's choice?
Economic planners planned the production of cosmetics and beauty products in line with semi-official standards of beauty
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What did the Teacher's Gazette achieve?
Set out guidance on how to dress appropriately in the consumer age
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What did the magazine advise?
Women should dress in a way that reflected the socialist consensus
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What did the magazine say about women?
"Overly bright lipstick, colour on the eyelids and red nail varnish make a woman look vulgar."
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What did Soviet posters contrast?
Wholesome young Soviet women who wore knee-length skirts with women influenced by American fashion and style
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What did Khrushchev's government associate modern fashion with?
Wastefulness, frivolity and decadence
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What could the Soviet government not constrain?
Soviet shoppers' desire for fashion
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What happened between 1964 and 1970?
Spending on clothes tripled
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What happened in cities?
Over half the clothes in shops never sold
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By 1985, how many Western magazines were available on the black market in Soviet cities?
450 Western fashion magazines
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What was significant about the film "The Blonde around the Corner"?
The heroine wears Western clothes and lives in a stylish apartment
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How many people watched this film?
24 million people
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What was the general policy during the 1970s and the 1980s?
Soviet magazines continued to ridicule Western styles of dressing, teachers were expected to discourage Western styles of dress from school
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What demonstrated that sometimes this backfired?
The 1977 film An Office Romance, ridiculed a fashionable young female secretary for her love of "provocative" clothes
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Why did this backfire?
Audiences identified more with the young woman than her conservative, poorly dressed boss
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What were samizdat publications?
Self-published magazines and books
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Who was Alexander Ginzburg?
Edited the samizdat magazine Syntax, which circulated on the Soviet black market
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What happened to artists who refused to conform?
Sent to psychiatric institutions in order to be cured
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What happened to Josef Brodsky, for instance?
He was sent to the Serbsky Institute
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What were conditions like in these hospitals?
They were extremely poor; inmates lived on watery soup, in the cold and damp their mental health deteriorated
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How did art under Brezhnev differ from art under Khrushchev?
K appealed to a bright future; B became nostalgic for the past
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How did Brezhnev view art?
He was aware of the political impact of art and culture
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What did Brezhnev criticise Khrushchev for?
He was extremely critical of Khrushchev's willingness to publish works that exposed the difficulties of life in the Soviet Union
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What was an example of some of the traditional art that emerged during this period?
The Bolshoi Ballet became a symbol of Soviet culture
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What was considered one of the greatest Soviet cultural triumphs?
The ballet Spartacus
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What does political scientist Piero Ostellino argue?
Under Brezhnev there were three groups of dissidents
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What were obedient functionaries?
People willing to work within the system
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What were loyal oppositionists?
Intellectuals and artists who were critical of the system, yet expressed their criticism through official channels
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What were dissidents?
Intellectuals and artists who expressed their criticism publicly
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What dashed hopes of a sustained thaw?
The trial of Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuli Daniel
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What were they arrested for?
Producing "anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda" in 1965
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What did the post-Khrushchev leadership believe about Khrushchev's cultural policy?
It had undermined faith in the Soviet system
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What did an early 1965 KGB report indicate?
There were 1292 anti-Soviet authors who had written 10,000 anti-Soviet documents
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Why were Sinyavsky and Daniel arrested?
They were two authors who had been allowed considerable freedom under Khrushchev
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What was the trial effectively?
The trial was effectively a show trial
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What was the sentence for the two writers?
They were sentenced to seven and five years in a labour camp
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What were the government well aware of, however?
The international outrage that persecuting writers and artists provoked
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Who was an example of somebody released?
Brodsky was released
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How did the treatment of dissident artists change during this time?
High-profile artists were allowed to emigrate
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Who was an example of a notable Soviet artist who emigrated?
Brodsky was allowed to emigrate to the USA
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By the early 1970s, how many dissidents were receiving "repressive psychiatric treatment"?
7000 to 8000
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What did the Prague Spring lead to?
Further hardening of Brezhnev's attitude to art and culture
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What did the Prague Spring confirm to Brezhnev?
That cultural liberalisation was dangerous to communist rule
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What was an example of somebody who was affected by this?
Alexander Tvardvosky, editor of New World, was forced to resign in 1970
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What did Soviet culture become throughout the 1970s?
More profoundly nostalgic
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What was evidence of this?
The film "Liberation" in 1970, which celebrated Soviet victory in the Second World War
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What was Nonna Goriunova's "Forest Ritual" (1968)?
A live performance in which she posed naked in a forest
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Who were the Moscow Conceptualists?
Attempted to make art which was a "rebellion against everyday life"; aimed to expose the truth about Soviet society
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Who was Natalia Zhilina?
Helped form Leningrad Underground Art
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What was 1974's "Bulldozer Exhibition"?
Police driving bulldozers destroyed many of the paintings and sculptures displayed at the makeshift exhibition
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What happened to the second Mitki exhibition of 1985?
It was raided by the police
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Other cards in this set
Prior to the revolution what had Lenin announced his intention to do?
Close down "bourgeois newspapers"
What did Lenin believe that revolutionary success required?
What did the Decree on the Press do?
When was this announced?