Superpowers - Complete notes (Edexcel A2)

Notes for unit 3 of Edexcel Geogrpahy A level. Contain complete notes, with arguments, case studies and defintions. 

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Page 1

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Superpower
Geographies

Superpowers


Definition

- "Superpowers
are
nations,
or
groupings
of
nations
that
have
a

disproportionate
degree
of
power
compared
with
other
nations."

- "A
superpower
must
be
able
to
conduct
a
global
strategy
...
to
command

vast
economic
potential
and
influence
and
present
a
universal
ideology."

(Prof
Paul
Dukes,…

Page 2

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o Decrease
dependence
on
others.

! Increase
economic
development.

! Development
stunted
if
resources
owned
by
TNCs.

o E.g.
land,
fossil
fuels,
mineral
wealth
and
people.

- Prestige
actions

o Going
to
space


o Hosting
sporting
events

Sustaining
power

- Using
different
mechanism,
appropriate
to
the
situation.

o Hard
power…

Page 3

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Development
Theories

Liberal
Development
theories


- Modernisation
Theory
(W.W.
Rostrow
1960)
(Take-off
model)

o Outline

! Economic
development
is
linear,
five-stages
process.

! Countries
take-off
and
develop
when
pre-conditions
are

met,
such
as
transport
and
infrastructure.


! Industrialisation
follows:
creating
jobs
trade
and

consumers.

! Rostrow
reckoned
democracy,
free
trade…

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o Use


! Often
used
for
the
Four
Asian
Tigers

· South
Korea,
Taiwan,
Hong
Kong
and
Singapore.

o Criticisms


! The
model
fails
to
take
into
full
account
the
support
and
aid

provided
to
some
Asian
countries,
by
the
USA,
during
the

cold
war.

! In
the
early
years,…

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o Criticisms

! It
is
more
of
a
description
of
the
world
rather
than
an

explanation
of
it.

! It
does
not
account
for
the
rise
of
China.

! It
has
a
bi-polar
outlook
(written
in
the
cold
war).




British
Empire
-
Case
study

- Land
control

o Until
1776…

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! E.g.
1972
telegraph
cable
to
Australia


o Pride
in
Empire

! British
population
supported
the
aim
of
the
empire.

! E.g.
Empire
day
was
celebrated.

- Fall
of
Empire

o WW2
showed
that
the
values
the
empire
was
based
on
were

flawed.

o There
was
no
economic
benefit
of…

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o The
USA
accounts
for
over
half
of
all
international
arms
sales.

! Cooperate
with
allies
on
tech
projects

· E.g.
UK
and
Israel

- Support
of
other
countries

o The
NATO
(North
Atlantic
Treaty
Organization)


! Military
alliance
provides
the
USA
with
allies
in
North

America
(Canada),
Europe
(UK,…

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o Growing
economic
issues

! 2008
financial
crisis

o Undermining
international
authority


! Iraq
war

! Guantanamo
Bay

o Increased
dependence,
undermines
bargaining
power.

! Could
have
issues
with
oil,
and
gas
supply.

Ideological
foreign
policy


- 1823:
Monroe
Doctrine

o To
regard
further
intervention
by
European
powers
in
South…

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! Increasing
income
inequality
from
1979.

! Marshall
plan
in
Europe
propped
up
with
money.

o USSR
­
GDP
of
$2.9
trillion
in
1990.
Second
largest
economy.

! Marxist
economic
theory
based
primarily
on
production.

! Industrial
production
directed
by
centralised
state
organs

leading
to
a
high
degree
of
inefficiency.…

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o Etc.

o 1990
Communist
party
gives
up
power
in
USSR

o In
only
4
months,
Communism
collapses
around
the
USSR.

- Reasons
for
fall

o Fear
of
state
diminished

! Freedom
of
speech

o Cultural
Hegemony
limited

o Economic
failures

! Long-term
economic
failure.

o Soviet
military
weakened

!…

Comments

Julia Felicita

Report

An excellent resource!Thank you ^^

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