Superpowers - Complete notes (Edexcel A2)

Notes for unit 3 of Edexcel Geogrpahy A level. Contain complete notes, with arguments, case studies and defintions. 

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  • Created on: 08-10-15 21:18
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Superpower
Geographies
Superpowers
Definition
- "Superpowers
are
nations,
or
groupings
of
nations
that
have
a
disproportionate
degree
of
power
compared
with
other
nations."
- "A
superpower
must
be
able
to
conduct
a
global
strategy
...
to
command
vast
economic
potential
and
influence
and
present
a
universal
ideology."
(Prof
Paul
Dukes,
University
of
Aberdeen)
- The
power
is
global
in
nature
so
that
the
sphere
of
influence
is
the
entire
world.
Characteristics
- Economic
o Construction
of
infrastructure.
o Military
machinery.
o Influence
! E.g.
foreign
aid
o Organisations
! OECD
! IMF
- Military
o Threaten
and
a
bargain.
o Capable
of
reaching
distant
places.
- Cultural
Hegemony
(or
Ideology)
o `Cultural
hegemony'
coined
by
Marxist
Philosopher
Antonio
Gramsci.
! Idea
that
shared
ideas
mean
that
power
is
easily
held,
and
people
controlled.
o Shared
core
beliefs
and
values
(political
and
cultural).
! E.g.
Western
neo-liberal
superiority.
! E.g.
Communism
! E.g.
Imperialist
o Political
influence
through
the
media.
- Political
influence
o Organisations
! E.g.
G8
and
WTO
- Geographical
o Size
of
land
controlled
! Tend
to
have
more
resources.
- Demographic
o Larger
workforce.
! Can
increase
through
immigration
· E.g.
UK
! Singapore
has
low
population
and
high
economic
power.
o Larger
Market
! Specialisation,
and
economies
of
scale.
- Resources

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Decrease
dependence
on
others.
! Increase
economic
development.
! Development
stunted
if
resources
owned
by
TNCs.
o E.g.
land,
fossil
fuels,
mineral
wealth
and
people.
- Prestige
actions
o Going
to
space
o Hosting
sporting
events
Sustaining
power
- Using
different
mechanism,
appropriate
to
the
situation.
o Hard
power
­
Tangible
power
(often
feared)
! Military
power
! Nuclear
weapons
o Middling
power
­
Negotiations.
! Aid
and
trade.
o Soft
power
­
Visible
subtle
things.
! Culture
and
ideology.…read more

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Development
Theories
Liberal
Development
theories
- Modernisation
Theory
(W.W.
Rostrow
1960)
(Take-off
model)
o Outline
! Economic
development
is
linear,
five-stages
process.
! Countries
take-off
and
develop
when
pre-conditions
are
met,
such
as
transport
and
infrastructure.
! Industrialisation
follows:
creating
jobs
trade
and
consumers.
! Rostrow
reckoned
democracy,
free
trade
and
capitalism
were
required.
! Five
stages
· Traditional
society
o Subsistence,
barter,
agriculture
o E.g.
Mali
· Traditional
society
o Specialisation,
infrastructure,
surplus
o E.g.…read more

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Use
! Often
used
for
the
Four
Asian
Tigers
· South
Korea,
Taiwan,
Hong
Kong
and
Singapore.
o Criticisms
! The
model
fails
to
take
into
full
account
the
support
and
aid
provided
to
some
Asian
countries,
by
the
USA,
during
the
cold
war.
! In
the
early
years,
many
Asian
Tiger
economies
had
protectionist
not
free-trade
policies.
Structuralist
Development
theories
- Dependency
theory
(A.G.
Frank
1967)
o Outline
! The
world
is
divided
into
north
and
south.…read more

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Criticisms
! It
is
more
of
a
description
of
the
world
rather
than
an
explanation
of
it.
! It
does
not
account
for
the
rise
of
China.
! It
has
a
bi-polar
outlook
(written
in
the
cold
war).
British
Empire
-
Case
study
- Land
control
o Until
1776
Control
of
much
of
America
o Until
1800s
Control
Australia,
New
Zealand
and
Canada.
o Until
1900s
Control
India,
much
of
Africa
- Height
of
power
(1921)
o Controlled
25%
of
the
world's
population.…read more

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E.g.
1972
telegraph
cable
to
Australia
o Pride
in
Empire
! British
population
supported
the
aim
of
the
empire.
! E.g.
Empire
day
was
celebrated.
- Fall
of
Empire
o WW2
showed
that
the
values
the
empire
was
based
on
were
flawed.
o There
was
no
economic
benefit
of
the
empire,
as
trade
with
Europe
was
cheaper.
o Significant
independence
campaigns.
! E.g.
Ghandi
o 1947
India
was
allowed
to
become
independent.…read more

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The
USA
accounts
for
over
half
of
all
international
arms
sales.
! Cooperate
with
allies
on
tech
projects
· E.g.
UK
and
Israel
- Support
of
other
countries
o The
NATO
(North
Atlantic
Treaty
Organization)
! Military
alliance
provides
the
USA
with
allies
in
North
America
(Canada),
Europe
(UK,
France,
Italy
and
others)
and
the
Middle
East
(Turkey).
o US-UK
"special
relationship"
! Support
in
conflicts
such
as
Iraq.
- Financial
support
o Four
greatest
recipients
of
aid
are
not
LDC
countries,
but
key
allies.…read more

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Growing
economic
issues
! 2008
financial
crisis
o Undermining
international
authority
! Iraq
war
! Guantanamo
Bay
o Increased
dependence,
undermines
bargaining
power.
! Could
have
issues
with
oil,
and
gas
supply.
Ideological
foreign
policy
- 1823:
Monroe
Doctrine
o To
regard
further
intervention
by
European
powers
in
South
America
as
aggressive,
and
require
intervention.
- 1947:
Truman
Doctrine
o To
contain
communism
and
bring
stability
to
Europe.…read more

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Increasing
income
inequality
from
1979.
! Marshall
plan
in
Europe
propped
up
with
money.
o USSR
­
GDP
of
$2.9
trillion
in
1990.
Second
largest
economy.
! Marxist
economic
theory
based
primarily
on
production.
! Industrial
production
directed
by
centralised
state
organs
leading
to
a
high
degree
of
inefficiency.
! Five-year
plans
frequently
used
to
accomplish
economic
goals.
! Economic
benefits
such
as
guaranteed
employment,
free
healthcare,
free
education
on
all
levels
formally
assured
for
all
citizens.…read more

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Etc.
o 1990
Communist
party
gives
up
power
in
USSR
o In
only
4
months,
Communism
collapses
around
the
USSR.
- Reasons
for
fall
o Fear
of
state
diminished
! Freedom
of
speech
o Cultural
Hegemony
limited
o Economic
failures
! Long-term
economic
failure.
o Soviet
military
weakened
! As
the
USSR
collapsed,
eastern
European
states
could
renounce
communism
without
threat
from
army.
- Results
of
fall
of
communism
o Environmental
! Contaminated
land
and
polluted
rivers
following
rapid
industrialization.…read more

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