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Slide 2

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· Kobe lies on the Nojima fault above a destructive
plate margin. Here, the heavier, oceanic plate (the
Philippine plate) is forced under the lighter,
continental Eurasian plate. Sudden movement of
the fault caused this earthquake.
· In Sichuan the Indio-Australian and Indian plates are
driving Northwards 5cm per year into the Eurasian
plate, this has caused the Himalayas. The
Longmenshan fault slipped and thrusted upwards
12 metres causing the 2008 quake.…read more

Slide 3

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Primary effects?
· In Kobe some primary effects were collapsing of buildings, bridges and roads.
· Transport networks were devastated .
· Electricity cables damaged.
· Collapse of Hanshin express way and bullet train railway lines.
· Port damaged due to liquefaction.
· Modern buildings designed to be earthquake proof pretty much stayed intact.
· Death toll = between 5,000 and 6,500.
· In Sichuan 80% of buildings collapsed .
· Communications were brought to a halt.
· Roads were blocked by landslides.
· 7000 schools collapsed (nearly EVERY school)- 6000 children died.
· `tofu' buildings meant they looked structurally safe but contained little steel an were not
reinforced so easily broken.
· Landslides and rock slides in mountainous areas were devastating .
· 1300 water treatment works were destroyed.
· Death toll = 70,000…read more

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Secondary effects?
· In Kobe thousands of businesses were forced to close.
· Extra jobs were created in reconstruction.
· 10 billion yen worth of damage.
· 300,000 were made homeless. (severe winters of -2 degrees)
· Kobe's population dropped by 33,000 mainly due to people moving away.
· In Sichuan there was $75 million worth of damage.
· Rivers blocked from landslides lead to flooding.
· Poor access to remote areas due to road blockages meant even more people died as some
couldn't be reached for 3 days.
· LOADS of rainfall meant more mudslides, some rescue staff were buried.
· Toxic gases released from collapse of chemical factories.
· Fuel shortage as coal mines were destroyed or made unsafe.…read more

Slide 5

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· In Kobe, water, electricity, gas and telephone services were fully working by July 1995 .
· Railways back in service in August 1995.
· 1 year after earthquake 80% of the port was working.
· More instruments were installed to monitor earthquakes.
· Provided aid and shelter to those affected by earthquake.
· In Sichuan, 20 helicopters were assigned to rescue. ­ troops began parachuting to asses situation.
· Clean water, food and tents were supplied.
· 14th May China requested international help.
· Donations to red cross exceeded £100 million.
· One million temporary small homes were built.…read more


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