summary of developmental part 2

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Summary of developmental part 2
Bowlby's evolutionary theory
AO1- describe
Innate- certain behaviours called social releasers (e.g. crying) are inherited
from our parents. These cause the child and parent to spend more time
together, thus forming an attachment
Critical period- attachments need to form within the critical period which
is anytime between 18months and 2 and half years. If no attachment is
formed after 2 and a half years then the child will never form an
Adaptive- attachments help you survive. You become attached to your
mother as she is a source of food, protection and shelter.
Monotropy- children only form one secure attachment in their lives which is
to their mother. The child is attached strongest to the person who responds
in the most sensitive way.
Internal working model- baby's ideas and expectations of the world. They
develop their behaviours from mirroring their mother. For example, if the
baby's mother was stressed then the baby may grow up to become stressed
Later Development- your attachment type continues to develop into later
life. For example, type b babies will grow up t become friendly, confident
and social leaders
AO2 evaluate
Geese- Konrad Lorenz, found that geese imprint on the first thing they see
after they are born which is a mother figure, during their critical period
which is 24 hours for geese. He found that if the geese didn't imprint on
anyone after 24 hours then they never formed an attachment, which
supports Bowlby's theory on the critical period for humans.
Alternative explanations- for later development (continuity hypothesis).
Bowlby states that it is the babies attachment that cause the later
development, however Kagan's temperament hypothesis states that it's the
child's innate (inherited) personality that determines the later development.
Monotropy- Bowlby states that children form one main attachment which is
to their mother; however there is evidence that shows that a father's
presence can effect a child's development, for example, a child is more
likely to become a criminal if they have a poor attachment with their
EFE- African tribe provided evidence that supports both the innate and
Monotropy part of the theory. Children there are raised in extended

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The similarity in attachment behaviour in a different
culture suggests that innate factors cause attachments.
Disruption of attachment and failure to form attachments- privation
Separation and deprivation-
Robertson (AO1)
Studied children who were separated from their mothers as they had to go
to hospital. Those left with the Robertson's had the same daily routine,
visits from their fathers, and substitute emotional care. Therefore
separation didn't lead to deprivation.…read more

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A lot of detailed information was gathered from Genie allowing some
conclusions to be drawn.
Cannot generalise results (population validity) as it was a case study
with a small sample size
Genie may have been mentally retarded at birth which casts doubt on
the conclusion that privation was the cause of Genies impairments.
The large amounts of testing was considered unethical due to the stress
it caused Genie.
Czech twins
Studied Czech twins who were isolated in a cellar for 5 and a half years.…read more

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Privation and deprivation
Spitz and wolf
Looked at children in American orphanages. They suffered from privation
due to poor emotional care from nurses. They suffered from anaclitic
depression and most dies as a result.…read more


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