summary of developmental part 1

the first part of the summary for developmental. this is the second part:

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Summary of developmental part 1
Attachment
Strong emotional bond between a child and a parent that is shown by upset
upon separation and happiness upon reunion.
Strange situation
26 middle class US families
8 stages took 21 minutes
Uses stranger and separation anxiety to classify infants
Controlled observation:
- m, b, o
- m, b
- s, m, b- stranger anxiety
- s, b- separation anxiety
- m, b
- b- separation anxiety
- s, b- stranger anxiety
- m, b
type a- insecure avoidant
- ignores mother
- doesn't mind if mother goes
- ignores mother when she returns
- friendly towards stranger
type b- secure
- plays happily
- upset when mother leaves
- happy when she returns
- gets a little upset when with stranger alone
type c- insecure resistant
- fussy and tearful when mother is there
- cries a lot when mother leaves
- at reunion baby wants attention from mother but then resists contact
evaluation
good test retest reliability
poor internal validity- measures relationship with mother and not
attachment type
predictive validity- type b children will be confident and social leader
with lots of friends, these trends last into secondary school

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Americans were involved so can't generalise to other cultures
ecological validity- can't generalise to real life because babies may
behave differently at home as it was done in a lab environment
poor ethics- causes distress- Takahashi had to terminate 90% of the
experiments cause of the high levels of distress the children suffered from
Factors affecting attachment type
Ainsworth's caregiver sensitivity hypothesis- caregivers should be sensitive,
cooperative, accepting and assessable (nurture)
Maternal availability- parents need to respond appropriately to Childs
physical and emotional needs (nurture)…read more

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Replicated the SS in Japan, had to terminate 90% of cases due to extreme
distress from children
Shows that distress is caused by SS for all children
SS may therefore give invalid classifications in some cultures
Relation to factors affecting attachment type
The consistencies can be used to support the role of innate factors on
attachment type (nature), although some argue that parenting styles across
the world due to mass media
The variations are different due to parenting styles, supporting the rols of
nurture
Learning…read more

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Pavolov- provided evidence that animals can learn through classical
conditioning. A neutral stimulus (a bell) when paired with a
unconditioned stimulus (food) will cause the dog to produce saliva
(conditioned response) when the bell is produced on its own. Whilst
babies could learn to form attachment through classical conditioning
there is little evidence to suggest that they do.…read more

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