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ATOMS:
The nucleus:
1. It's in the middle of the atom.
2. Contains protons and neutrons.
3. It has a positive charge because of the protons.
4. Almost the whole mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus.
5. But size wise its tiny compared to the rest of the atom.
The electrons:
1. Move around the nucleus
2. They're negativity charged
3. They're tiny, but they cover alot of space.
4. The volume of their orbits determines how big the atom is.
5. They have virtually no mass.
6. They're arranged in shells around the nucleus.
7. These shells explain the whole of chemistry
PARTICL RELATIV CHARG
E E MASS E
PROTON 1 +1
NEUTRO 1 0
N
ELECTRO 0.0005 1
N
CHEMICAL EQUATIONS:

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ATOMS ARE NOT LOST OR MADE IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS !
During chemical equations thing don't appear out of nowhere and things don't just disappear.
You still have the same atoms at the end of reaction just arranged in a different way.
EG. Sodium + chlorine =sodium chloride
2Na(s) + CI2(g) = 2NaCI(S)
H
+ =
There must be the same number of atoms on each side ­ they can't just disappear.
BALANCE JUST ONE TYPE OF ATOM AT A TIME.…read more

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All the different colours seen in fireworks are due to the colours produced by different elements. What more is that it helps chemists to identify a metal in a compound. Just put a
little bit in a blue Bunsen flame and see what colour is produced.
Each element has a characteristic line spectrum When heated the electrons in an atom are
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excited, and release energy as light. The wavelengths emitted can be recorded as a line spectrum. Different elements emit different wavelengths of light.…read more

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RULES:
1. Electrons always occupy shells.
2. The lowest energy levels are always filled first
3. Only a certain number of electrons are allowed in each shell:
1st shell: 2, 2nd shell:8 , 3rd shell: 8
4. Atoms are much happier when they have a full electron shells.
5. In most atoms the outer shell is not full and this makes the atoms want to react.
6. An element's electron arrangement determines its chemical properties.…read more

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Ions are made when atoms gain or lose electrons.…read more

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