Studies in the Cognitive and Social Approach

Studies in the Cognitive and Social Approach including 

Aim, Procedure, Results, Conclusions, Strengths and Weaknesses

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  • Created on: 05-05-14 20:25
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Craik and Lockhart'75 Levels of Processing
Describing Levels of Processing
This theory of memory concentrates on the processes of memory not the storage or structures.
It is non-structured and it shows that we process information in 3 different ways.
1. Structural- encoding the appearance of something, through selective attention.
2. Phonetic- encoding the sound that was made
These processes are shallow and can only be rehearsed through the maintenance rehearsal
(repetition to help us hold something in the STM).
Deep Processing-
3. Semantic ­ encoding the meaning of the word relating it to similar words.
This involves images and thinking.
Deep processing involves elaborative rehearsal which leads to better recall.
Levels of processing: The idea that the way information is encoded affects how well it is
remembered. The deeper the level of processing, the easier the information is to recall .
Aim The aim of this study was to investigate how deep and shallow processing affects our
memory recall.
-20 Participants were presented 60 words.
Procedure -Then the participants were asked questions about these words which will allow them
to process in different ways.
Some questions required the participants to process the word in a deep way (e.g.
semantic) and others in a shallow way (e.g. structural and phonemic). For example:
Structural / visual processing: `Is the word in capital letters or small letters?
Phonemic / auditory processing: `Does the word rhyme with . . .?'
Semantic processing: `Does the word go in this sentence . . . . ?
Participants were then given 180 words and had to pick out the 60 words they were
given to start off with.

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Results Participants recalled words more semantically compared to the other results.
Conclusion Semantically processed words involve elaboration rehearsal and deep processing
which then results in accurate recall. Phonetic and structural processing involves
shallow processing so there is less accurate recall.
Strengths A strength of this key study is that it changed the direction in memory research as it
showed encoding is not simple.…read more

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Godden and Baddeley'75 Cue
Dependent in forgetting in
Cue dependent of forgetting is a theory that to stop forgetting something, you have to memory
trace a cue. These cues are known as State Cues and Context Cues.
State cues are cues that connect with your emotional state, this means that you are more likely to
recall if in the same emotional state you were in when something happened.…read more

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Results Words learned underwater were recalled best underwater and words learned on
land were recalled best on land.
Learning Recall
environment Environment
Dry Wet
Dry 13.5 8.6
Wet 8.5 11.4
Conclusion They concluded that the recall was better when recall occurred in the same place as
where they learnt the words. This suggests that context cues aid recall. They also
emphasised that the results weren't found in a lab it was found in a real environment.…read more

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Sherif et al'54 Robbers Cave Experiment
Supporting the Social Identity theory
-In group and Out-group
Aim The aim was to investigate relations between groups, particularly to see whether
strangers brought together would form a close group bond, and when introduced
to a similar group whether contact and competition will cause groups to be hostile
towards eachother.
Procedure -22 white lower middle class boys aged 11 took part in the study all psychologically
adjusted.…read more

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The rattler group shared $5 prize on
drinks for both groups.
Conclusion Hostility was observed between the groups and as soon as they knew of each
other, it was shown that competition is a lead factor in leading to discrimination
(inter-group conflict)
However when groups were to work together on co-operative tasks that
benefited both of them, the prejudice and discrimination attitudes were reduced.…read more

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Hofling et al'66
Aim The aim was to see whether nurses would obey an instruction over the phone
from a `doctor'- this would make them infringe both hospital regulations and
medical ethics.
Procedure -There were boxes of capsules placed in 22 wards, placebos were labelled
`5mg capsules of Astroten' Boxes stated that 10mg was the maximum
A `doctor' instructed the nurse by phone to give 20mg of Astroten to his
patient and that he will sign forms when he gets to the ward.…read more

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Another weakness is that extraneous variables could have intervened with
the experiment. As the study was done in 1966, at that time it was mainly
male doctors and female nurses. The results produced could be because of
the society obeying men more than women. If the study was to be done again
it could be different as society and knowledge has changed.…read more


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