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Craik and Lockhart'75 Levels of Processing

Describing Levels of Processing

This theory of memory concentrates on the processes of memory not the storage or structures.
It is non-structured and it shows that we process information in 3 different ways.
1. Structural- encoding the appearance of something, through selective attention.

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Results Participants recalled words more semantically compared to the other results.

Conclusion Semantically processed words involve elaboration rehearsal and deep processing
which then results in accurate recall. Phonetic and structural processing involves
shallow processing so there is less accurate recall.

Strengths A strength of this key study is that it…

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Godden and Baddeley'75 Cue
Dependent in forgetting in

Cue dependent of forgetting is a theory that to stop forgetting something, you have to memory
trace a cue. These cues are known as State Cues and Context Cues.

State cues are cues that connect with your emotional state, this…

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Results Words learned underwater were recalled best underwater and words learned on
land were recalled best on land.

Learning Recall
environment Environment

Dry Wet

Dry 13.5 8.6

Wet 8.5 11.4

Conclusion They concluded that the recall was better when recall occurred in the same place as
where they learnt the…

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Sherif et al'54 Robbers Cave Experiment
Supporting the Social Identity theory

-In group and Out-group

Aim The aim was to investigate relations between groups, particularly to see whether
strangers brought together would form a close group bond, and when introduced
to a similar group whether contact and competition will cause…

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bond together and they shared the bus home. The rattler group shared $5 prize on
drinks for both groups.

Conclusion Hostility was observed between the groups and as soon as they knew of each
other, it was shown that competition is a lead factor in leading to discrimination
(inter-group conflict)…

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Hofling et al'66

Aim The aim was to see whether nurses would obey an instruction over the phone
from a `doctor'- this would make them infringe both hospital regulations and
medical ethics.

Procedure -There were boxes of capsules placed in 22 wards, placebos were labelled
`5mg capsules of Astroten'…

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Another weakness is that extraneous variables could have intervened with
the experiment. As the study was done in 1966, at that time it was mainly
male doctors and female nurses. The results produced could be because of
the society obeying men more than women. If the study was to be…


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