Psychological Approaches

These cards should help you with the assumptions section of the core studies paper. Test with a friend so that you can both learn from them.

  • Created by: Molly
  • Created on: 30-04-13 13:53
What are the 5 approaches in psychology?
Cognitive, Social, Developmental, Individual differences, Physiological.
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What 3 studies are in the cognitive approach?
Loftus and Palmer, Baron Cohen, Savage-Rumbaugh.
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What is the main assumption of the cognitive approach.
That it is our thinking, our cognitions, that determine our behaviour and therefore we can work out or cognitions are by controlling what we are exposed to and measuring our response. E.G short term memory.
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What are other studies with cognitive elements?
Samuel and Bryant, Piliavin et al, Griffiths.
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List 3 strengths of the cognitive approach?
1.Quantitative data, easy to analyse. 2.Useful for helping us work out how the mind works (Practical application). 3.Highly scientific approach, high internal validity and high controls so replicable - reliable.
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List 3 weaknesses of the cognitive approach?
1. Doesn't take in to account other factors e.g. environment, emotional state 2. Lacks ecological validity - lab experiments. 3. Cognitive approaches are measured by self report, observation which lack validity.
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What are some typical methodologies of the cognitive approach?
Lab experiments, Independant measures design, High controls over IV and DV.
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What studies belong to the social approach?
Piliavin and Piliavin, Reicher and Haslam and the Milgram study.
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What is the main assumption of the social approach?
The way we interact with other people affects the way that we think/feel/behave, e.g. social influence, peer pressure.
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What are 3 strengths of the social approach?
1. Field experiments used to gain insight in to natural behaviour - high eco valid. 2. Social psychology helps us understand how we behave in groups. 3.Helps explain strange human behaviour.
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List 3 weaknesses of the social approach?
1. To gather natural behaviour it often breaks ethical guidelines. 2. Deterministic as it doesn't recognise other possible influences eg genes. 3. Restricted samples are generalised from.
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What 3 studys are classed as developmental?
Freud Study, Samuel and Bryant study, Bandura et al study.
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What is the main assumption of the developmental approach?
That development is an ongoing process and changes occur over a persons lifetime as a result of unherited factors or life time experiences.
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List 3 strengths of the developmental approach?
1. Longitudinal studies - data rich. 2.Allows us to explain apparently abnormal behaviour in children. 3. Allows us to examine development from different perspectives.
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List 3 weaknesses of the developmental approach?
1. Researchers can become biased. 2. Hard to replicate. 3.Unethical as often involve children.
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What studies belong to the individual differences approach?
Thigpen and Cleckley, Rosenhan and Griffiths.
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What is the gerenal assumption of the individual differences approach?
That what makes us individual also makes us behave as individuals.
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List 3 strengths of the Individual differences approach?
1. Practical application is high as helps us know how to treat mentally ill patients. 2.High in internal validity. 3.Helps us understand the concept of normality.
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List 3 weaknesses of the individual differences approach?
1. Cannot make generalisations about people from case studies. 2.Ethical issues. 3.Lacks reliability because it focuses on individual cases. 4. Observer bias.
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What 3 studies belong to the physiological approach?
Sperry, Maguire, Dement + Kleitman.
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What is the main assumption of the physiological approach?
Behaviour is a consequence of our natural biological functions. These functions are how our nerves and hormones interact to produce our behaviour.
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List 3 strengths of the physiological approach?
1. Use of complex machinery allows for acurate measurements (quantitative data). 2.PA as impact of biology on behaviour can lead to treatment and intervention. 3. Understands how abnormal brains work.
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List 3 weaknesses of the phyiological approach?
1. Machines are controlled by humans and thus subject to human error. 2.Correlations are achieved which cannot determine cause and effect. 3.Can be reductionist as tries to find 1 explanation for complex behaviours.
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Typical Methodologies of the physiological approach?
Quasi experiments.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What 3 studies are in the cognitive approach?

Back

Loftus and Palmer, Baron Cohen, Savage-Rumbaugh.

Card 3

Front

What is the main assumption of the cognitive approach.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are other studies with cognitive elements?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

List 3 strengths of the cognitive approach?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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