Stress revision- possible 12 mark questions

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  • Created by: Alanah B
  • Created on: 15-05-14 18:00
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STRESS
Stress a biological and physiological bodily
response experienced on encountering a threat
that we feel we do not have the resources to deal
with.
EXPOSURE TO A STRESSOR
SAM (short term) HPA (long term)
Hypothalamus Hypothalamus
Sympathetic branch of ANS Pituitary gland
Adrenal medulla ATCH
Adrenaline and noradrenaline Adrenal cortex
Fight or flight Cortisol and glucose
Heart rate increase Immune system
OUTLINE AND EVALUATE RESEARCH INTO THE EFFECTS
OF STRESS AND FORMS OF PHYSICAL ILLNESS (Freidman
and Rosenman)
Hypothesis types A personality were more likely to develop CHD than type B
personality type.
SELF SELECTED sample 3200 Californian men (3959)
LONGLITUDINAL study 8 ½ years
STRUCTUURED INTERVIEW & OBSERVATION
From responses and manor
TYPE A competitive, ambitious, impatient
TYPE B relaxed, noncompetitive
TYPE C hard working but becomes apathetic when faced with stress
257/3200 men developed CHD over the eight and a half years
70% of those were type A personality
More than DOUBLE the about than B, even taking into account obesity, smoking and
HBP

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Type A had higher levels of hormones
SIGNIFICANT correlation between CHD and personality types
Type A experiences more stress due to personality therefore more likely to develop
CHD
CAUSE AND EFFECT cannot be inferred as variables cannot be controlled because
it was a longitudinal study
Difficult to repeat findings
Findings suggest it is more to do with personality than exposure to stress
OUTLINE AND EVALUATE RESEARCH INTO THE EFFECTS OF
STRESS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM(Kiecolt Glaser et al)
Hypothesis psychological stress (caring for patients with…read more

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Weak but significant in 2500 people
Cause and effect cannot be inferred illness could have helped to cause life events
not the other way around
Study was culture and gender biased
Lacks external validity
OUTLINE AND EVALUATE RESEARCH INTO DAILY HASSLES (De
Longis)
Hypothesis daily hassles would have a larger effect on stress and physical illness
than life events
Used a life events scale along with daily hassles scale to compare which predicted
illness better
Questionnaire once a month for a yearhassles scale, uplifts scale,…read more

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OUTLINE AND EVALUATE HARDINESS (Kobasa)
HARDINESS A cluster of traits possessed by those people best able to cope with
stress
COMMITMENT they are more involved in what they do and have direction in life find
meaning in their work and personal relationships
CHALLENGE they view potentially stressful situations as a challenge and an
opportunity rather than a problem/ threat
CONTROL they have a strange sense of control than other people feel they can
influence their lives
STRENGTHS Hardy individuals generally exhibit lower levels of stress…read more

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Not a long term solution as they do not target the problem just mask it
OUTLINE AND EVALUATE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES
TO STRESS MANAGEMENT (SIT)
1) CONCEPTUALISATION PHASEtherapist and client form relationship identify
sources of stress
Asked to keep a diary of stressful experiences
Therapist challenges client's stressful situation if exaggerated
2) SKILLS ACQUISITION PHASE coping skills taught and practiced first clinic then
life
Skills taught and tailored to clients problems
Includes positive thinking, relaxation, methods of diversion etc.…read more

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