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Holmes and Rahe:
Studied whether stress of life changes was linked to illnesses. They ranked life changes to the level of
stress produced and called it the social reajustment rating scale (SRRS). They also created the life
changing unit (LCU) which gave a number value of life events that required adjustment.
Rahe et al:
Aim: To see whether there is a positive correlation between life events and illnesses.
Method: 2500 navy officials were given a SRRS questionnaire for the life changing events in the last six
months. Stress related illnesses were also recorded and given a severity level giving it an overall illness
Findings: Positive correlation of +0.118 between the LCU score and illness score.
Conclusions: There is a relationship between life events and stress related illnesses.
Type A: competitive and ambitious
Type B: relaxed and easy going
Type X: Combination of both
Rosenham and Friedman:
Aim: To see whether there was a link between Type A personality and Cardivasular heart disease
Method: 3000 men aged 39-59 were interviewed to identify personality types.
Findings: At the end of study 257 men developed coronary heart disease (CHD)- 70% of these had type A
Conclusion: Type A personalities have a higher risk of stress related illnesses
Kobasa and Madi:
Suggested those with hardi personalities have characteristics which protect them from negative effects of
stress. Three main characteristics in a hardy personality:
1. Control: they are in control of their lives and what happens in their life.
2. Commitment: they have a strong sense of purpose, engage fully in activities.
3. Challenge: Stressful events are seen as challanges to be overcomed.
WORK PLACE STRESS
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Marmot et al:
Proposed the `job restrain model' causes stress and illnesses in two ways:
1. High work load: greater job demands
2. Low job control: over deadlines, procedures etc.
Studied civil servants with high grade or low grade position
Method: 7372 civil servants given questions on workload, job control and amount of social support they
had in life.
Findings: there is no correlation between high work load and stress related illnesses.…read more
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We cannot avoid stress but we can change how we think about it. There are four stages in SIT.
1. Conceptualisation: establishing a relationship between client and therapist and learning impact of
2. Skills acquisition phase and rehearsal: ways to cope encouraged viewing problems in a different
3. Application phase: allows client to apply coping skills to situations such as by imagery, role playing,
Kobasa and Madi
Hardiness training in three stages: