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Dull and had no sense of humor -
nicknamed 'The Grey Blur'
Against Stalin?
Other leaders didn't take him seriously
because he seemed happy working in the
Bolshevik party thought he was arrogant.
He believed in 'permanent revolution' that to
Against Trotsky becoming the leader of the secure the USSR a whole world communist
USSR? revolution was necessary - They feared
Trotsky would involve the in conflicts.
Stalin told him the wrong date for Lenin's
Establish his reputation: Lenin had made big changes to the USSR.
Staling wanted to be an even greater leader
by bringing about even greater changes
- 1940 world's second largest industrial power
- Stakhanovism
- New cities, eg Magnitogorsk
General Achievements of Five-Year Plans? - City population rose by 29 million in a decade
- Creation of a skilled workforce, previously unskilled, illiterate and
undisciplined are now teachers, scientists, factory managers and
so are paid more than ordinary workers
- Free health care and primary education
- Saved USSR from defeat when Hitler invaded 1941
- Overambitious Targets, officials at every level falsified results,
quality remained an enormous problem (50% tractors didn't work),
shortage of skilled workers
General Failures of the Five-Year Plans?
- Living and working conditions, harsh, either forced work in
gulags or pressurized peasants. Insufficient accommodation,
punishments included shootings or expulsion to Gulags, sacked if
you missed more than a day (may have meant loosing your
accommodation too), crime and alcoholism increased

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Page 2

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He appeared everywhere: every Russian
town had 'Stalin square' or avenue and a
How did Stalin make himself present in large statue of him. They were deluged
everyday life? with Portraits and photos.
Regular processions through streets
praising him.
Through propaganda, the media,
How did the cult of personality work?
association with Lenin, revision of history,
indoctrination of children - education
geared to Stalinist propaganda
1. GOSPLAN set overall targets for an industry
2.…read more

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Results of the 3 Five-Year Plans? 2nd - Chemical industry and matalurgy grew rapidly,
travel and communications improved, industry
massively improved (targets not reached)
3rd -Victory in WW2 due to production of weapons
1. Stalin made great efforts to associate himself with Lenin (starting with Lenin's funeral which he attended as chief
mourner) 1924
2. He used his jobs (Commissar of Nationalities and General Secretary) to put his supporters in positions of power
3.…read more

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He wanted more workers in industries,
To increase food supply: towns and cities. Wanted to sell grain to
buy industrial equipment.
So fewer peasants had to produce more
food. Farming had to be reorganised!
To increase his military strength: WW1 had show to fight a modern war you
need an industry that can support it
(production of weapons, equipment etc)
Much industrial equipment had to be
imported, he wanted Russia to be self
To rival the economies of the USA and sufficient.…read more

Page 5

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What did the Russian Empire turn into? The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(USSR) in 1923 under Lenin
What else was controlled? Music and other arts were carefully
monitored by the NKVD and had to praise
Stalin either direct or indirectly.
Example of a miner Stakhanov who 'mined
100 tonnes in 10 hours' 14 times more
What is Stakhanovism? than average.…read more

Page 6

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What was GOSPLAN? The state planning organisation that Lenin
set up in 1921
What was the cult of personality? Hero worship to Stalin, 'blind obedience'
1936 - Stalin created it, gave people
freedom of speech and free elections
What was the new constitution?
Only communist candidates could stand in
for election
Only approved newspapers/magazines
were published
What was the Young Pioneers? Sort of scout group, school children were
expected to join, taught to love Stalin
What was this form of art called? Socialist Realism -…read more

Page 7

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What were Gulags? Slave labour camps
- Climate of fear
What were the effects of the purges? - Army lost all experienced officers (no
chance against advancing German army in
- arts stifled
They were plans drawn up by GOSPLAN
which set ambitious targets for production
What were the Five-Year plans? in the vital heavy industry (coal, iron, oil,
electricity) in an aim to catch up with the
west and have 100 years (worth of
production) in 10)
What were the show trials? Events…read more

Page 8

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When did Stalin make himself completely 1929
secure as the supreme leader of the USSR?
1934 - when Kirov the leader of Petrograd
When did the purges begin?
communist party was murdered
(Bodyguard found dead before he could
give evidence at trial)
When was the second Five-Year Plan? Between 1933 - 37
- Kulaks (opposed collectivisation)
- Party members
- Bolsheviks leaders who knew about Lenin's
Who suffered from the Purges? testament
- Poets writers and musicians (they can influence
- Managers of factories…read more

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Kamenev and Zinoviev - played important roles in the Bolshevik
revolution 1917 (more left)
Who were candidates to take Lenin's
Bukharin, Rykov and Tomsky - wanted to introduce communism
place? slowly and carry on with NEP until the USSR was stronger (more
Leading figure and bitter rivals - Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky
Who were the first put on trial? Kamenev and Zinoviev in August 1936
Rich peasants who had made money
during the NEP - seen as Stalins
Who were the Kulaks?
opponents…read more

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Some workers tried to move to other jobs
Why did the secret police introduce
to escape the hard work and discipline -
internal passports?
internal passports prevented this free
movement of workers within the USSR
- It wasn't truly communist
- Parts were capitalist - eg peasants could
Why end the NEP? sell their grain for a profit (this is how
kulaks became rich)
- They weren't industrialising fast enough
and they were thought to be 100 year
behind the west.…read more


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