Sociology�Topic2 Socialisation

Notes on socialisation for AS Sociology

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Emma Rudd BMA
30th September
Sociology ­ Topic 2 Socialisation
Definitions and Examples
Socialisation ­ The process by which we learn the culture of our
Primary socialisation ­ Intimate and influential socialisation in the early
years of life (usually from parents)
Secondary socialisation ­ Socialisation that occurs later in life from
various different sources.
Resocialisation ­ When a person has to learn new ways when their
role changes.
Anticipatory socialisation ­ The process by which knowledge and skills
are learned for future roles
Internalising ­ Is the process that norms and values shared by society
become part of a persons own personal set of values.
Agents of Socialisation Parents
Children learn about social norms from imitating their parents, as they grow up
they use their parents as role models. Parents try to teach social norms by telling
them how to behave and setting examples. They use sanctions (rewards and
punishments) to guide and control this process.
Reay's Research
Diane Reay (1998) studied 33 mothers in London. She said that middle class
mothers had more time and energy to spend with their children reading, playing
etc. Where as working class mothers had more of a struggle to make ends meet
so therefore didn't have the same amount of time and energy. This could
therefore indicate that the amount of socialisation coming from parents is fairly
dependant on their class / social status.
Furedi's Research
Frank Furedi (2001) studied how the roles of parents have changed over time.
He said traditionally `good' parents tried to care for and stimulate their children.
But now he describes parents as paranoid because they now see their main
task as protecting their children from danger (accidents, paedophiles, bullies).
He said that parents paranoia prevents children from taking certain risks, i.e.
school trips and playing outside, he then goes on to say that this prevents
children from developing a healthy sense of adventure. Which shows the social
pressure for parents to protect their children, but could reinforce gender
stereotypes, as parents tend to worry more about their daughters going out then
they do their sons.

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Emma Rudd BMA
30th September
The hidden curriculum takes place within the school where pupils learn the
expectations and background assumptions that run through the school. It
unintentionally teaches children the importance of hard work, teamwork,
competition and the importance of following the rules.
Skelton's Research
Christine Skelton (2001) studied a primary school in the North East it was in an
economically deprived area with a high reputation for crime and theft. The school
took it upon themselves of socialising the children.…read more

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Emma Rudd BMA
30th September
Religion has an influence on social attitudes and behaviour. Each religion has a
set of moral values, which over time become a part of society as people are
exposed to them. Religious rituals and ceremonies force social unity. I.e.
marriages, funerals, and baptisms bring people together and remind them of
their shared values. Religions provide a moral code, which can help people
guide, their behaviour.…read more



A great resources which clearly identifies and details the process of socialisation. The author of this word document has also provided a detailed explanation of the various agents of socialisation both primary and secondary, with the relevant key theorists. Great resource.

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