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Madeha Shamsuddin
Sociology:- Introduction to Sociology

Sociology is about Society, different types of people, relationships and what types of effects we can have on others & our community.
Sociology is the study of social groups (culture). The study of how group memberships shapes us (identity) & how we shape the…

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Madeha Shamsuddin
Media fabricates stories to entertain and sustain audiences contemporary needs, happens mostly in remote places where there is no
documentation of the area.

Social Control- Schools (control, reward & punish you based on the hidden curriculum), Force (in society you get sanctions, police &
the army to restrict…

Page 3

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Madeha Shamsuddin
Cross-sectional sample- Representative, sample made up of representative people that you could generalise for population.

Random Sample- Randomly chosen sample. every member of the population has an equal chance of selection

Stratified Sampling- Strata (e.g. Gender, religion etc) first, then samples have to represent research.

Snowball Sampling- contact…

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Madeha Shamsuddin
Interviews- Are typically used to find out peoples attitude, opinions & issues. Good for creating relationship between researcher &
respondent. Good for investigating personal & sensitive topics. Success of interview relies on skills of interviewer- has to make
respondent relaxed & open. Interviews take time, money, are hard…

Page 5

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Madeha Shamsuddin
Good= useful for studying hidden or criminal topics.
Time-consuming (rich, in-depth research)

Representativeness of participant observation-
No, can't generalise.

Ethics in participant observation-
Bad- Covert- no informed consent
Dangerous for researcher
Researcher may have to engage in illegal activities.

Types of participant observation-
Overt- open about research. So…

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