Sociology Startt & Methodolgy. .

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Madeha Shamsuddin
Sociology:- Introduction to Sociology
Sociology is about Society, different types of people, relationships and what types of effects we can have on others & our community.
Sociology is the study of social groups (culture). The study of how group memberships shapes us (identity) & how we shape the behaviour
of others.
Identity ­ REGGEC- Religion, Ethnicity, Gender, Geography, Age, Class
Subculture- Is smaller groups within culture; they have types of different behaviour & beliefs, normally youthful.
Norms- The unwritten laws of society that determine acceptable behaviour.
Values- General ideas about what is right & wrong. The correct ways of behaving & what is considered important & worthwhile.
Status- The amount of prestige a person's question in society gives them ­ could be
Ascribed: born with/ given. Achieved: worked for it.
Roles- A part that we play which has expected & acceptable behaviour associated with it.
Socialisation- This is the process of learning how to behave in way that is appropriate & acceptable to your culture.
Agencies of Socialisation: Family, Education, Mass Media, Peer Groups & Religion.
Primary Socialisation: takes place in early childhood & at home. It offers the basic norms & values of the family & the culture. Can learn
by Parents (modeling), Family, Teachers, Friends, TV, Media, Discipline & Praised = Social Control = Routine = Manipulation- teaching
you how to behave according to gender. Canalisation: when parents play with their children's toys, doing role plays according to gender.
Secondary Socialisation: this involves external agencies & modifies the primary socialization. It teaches norms for specific situations
& can be interpersonal (teacher & pupil) or impersonal (media to audience). When taught norms outside of home.
Big Macro Approach
Scientific ­more reliable
­ Government accepts
Structural Approach
Reliable- Methodology
Objective Study- Observe
Surveys ­ questionnaires
Non- Participant Observation
Small Micro Approach
Subjective (personal) Society
-Interviews -Methodology -Observing (getting involved) -Validity (truth)
PM= Participant Observation
(Overt + Covert)
Primary Method- use your self to investigate e.g. survey, questionnaire
Secondary Method- Already exists e.g. text book, Statistics (Hard: birth & Death recorded + Soft: Crime)
Characteristics of interviewer effects research
Observe body language & speaking tone
Correlation- the two variables change together but the researcher cannot prove exactly what the relationship is.
Hawthorne Effect- makes research findings invalid. Is when people being studied are told or become aware that an experiment is
taking place so behaviour is likely to change.
People's views depend & differ on their age & gender- that's why they ask for it in questionnaires, surveys etc
Feral Children ­ untamed children
Identify 2 reasons why case studies on feral children are not reliable

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Madeha Shamsuddin
Media fabricates stories to entertain and sustain audiences contemporary needs, happens mostly in remote places where there is no
documentation of the area.…read more

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Cross-sectional sample- Representative, sample made up of representative people that you could generalise for population.
Random Sample- Randomly chosen sample. every member of the population has an equal chance of selection
Stratified Sampling- Strata (e.g. Gender, religion etc) first, then samples have to represent research.
Snowball Sampling- contact with respondent who gives access to others (at first unlikely you can do this).…read more

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Madeha Shamsuddin
Interviews- Are typically used to find out peoples attitude, opinions & issues. Good for creating relationship between researcher &
respondent. Good for investigating personal & sensitive topics. Success of interview relies on skills of interviewer- has to make
respondent relaxed & open. Interviews take time, money, are hard to compare & can't interview large numbers. Is longer than
questionnaires but get in-depth info. Have high response rate- hard to say no. face to face- so can see if respondent is lying.…read more

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Good= useful for studying hidden or criminal topics.
Time-consuming (rich, in-depth research)
Representativeness of participant observation-
No, can't generalise.
Ethics in participant observation-
Bad- Covert- no informed consent
Dangerous for researcher
Researcher may have to engage in illegal activities.
Types of participant observation-
Overt- open about research. So researcher can avoid ethical problem of deceit & my not have to participate in illegal activities. It
allows researcher to ask questions & to take notes openly.…read more


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