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Bandura Bobo Doll
Participants aged 3,4 + 5 split into two groups.
Group 1
Watched a model behave aggressively towards a bobo doll, they were
shown to display higher levels of aggression. Boys were shown to be
more physically violent.
Group 2
Watched a model behave non-aggressively towards a bobo doll, they
were shown to be on the whole non aggressive.
This study provides support for SLT- that we learn to be aggressive
through observing others behaviours.
Demand characteristics, the bobo doll is meant to be hit...expectation that
they were meant to copy the behaviour of the model
The children were made to wait to play with the toys and therefore already
agitated, were the children motivated to hit the bobo doll or where they
just copying the behaviour?
Lacks mundane realism- may not be the same in a real life context.
Bandura addressed this however in a follow up study where Ps watched
a film of woman beating clown, then when exposed to a real clown they…read more

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Vicarious Reinforcement
Vicarious reinforcement is when children learn through the
consequences of others behaviour through watching other being
punished or rewarded for it. This explains aggression in the absence
of direct reinforcement- direct reward/punish
Bandura 1963
Ps were divided into 3 groups and watched film of model behaving
aggressively towards bobo doll.
Group 1
Saw the model being rewarded and then when exposed to bobo doll went
on to behave aggressively towards it.
Group 2
Saw the model being punished displayed low aggression.
Group 3
Saw the model not punished or praised, there some was some aggression
midway between the two.
The study again lacked mundane realism, because it was in a lab it
cannot be certain whether the same result would be seen in a real…read more

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The Role of
The role of punishment and rewards
was demonstrated further in Bandura
1965 when all three groups were
offered rewards for acting violently, all
groups acted violently...further
evidence for vicarious learning.…read more

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SLT in Adults
Found Homicide rates in US increased the
week following a boxing match,
suggesting viewers were imitating
behaviour.…read more

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It can explain how media has an effect
on anti-social behaviour...supported by
messaged such as "don't try this at
Supported by Kung San, non-violent
tribe...perhaps because of the the
absence of violent model or
reinforcement for violent actions.
Nature V Nuture... SLT is an interaction
between the two although it stresses…read more

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