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Social influence = a study into how thoughts, beliefs, feelings & behaviour of individuals are
influenced/modified by the actual, imagined or implied presence or actions of others'. Conformity is
a change in behaviour, beliefs or shared attitudes as a result of real or imagined pressure from
others'.

There are 3…

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they can't all be wrong!" Distortion of perception: ­ they really thought that the incorrect answers
were right

The ethical issues arisen from the P not knowing exactly what's going on in the beginning of the
experiment & thus full consent wasn't received = was overcome by offering the P…

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Minority Social Influence: It's a form of social influence where a persuasive minority exerts
pressure to change the attitudes, beliefs or behaviours of the majority. If people simply went along
with the majority all the time there would be no change or innovation. There are examples of when
small minorities…

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Group identification: Maass et al (1982) arranged for a group of `straight' Ps to hear arguments
about gay rights. If minority group was straight it had more influence on Ps than if group was gay ­
presumably because the Ps were better able to relate to the straight's which led…

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Obedience to authority: an outcome of social influence where an individual acts according to the
orders of some authority figure. It is a more direct form of social influence where the individual does
not get a choice in whether they want to defy or comply with the order. Because of…

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Demand characteristics = unexpectedly high level of obedience ­ may be because done in
prestigious Uni, Ps may have felt they extra pressure not to look dumb/weak & thus behave
differently. Also, experimenter wore white lab coat = all this would make P seek cues in how to
behave. Other…

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The internal validity of Milgram's study
Did the Ps really believe they were delivering shocks or did they see through the deception
­ if so then experiment lacks Int. Validity ­ findings weren't results of obedience but of
pretending to obey
Orne & Holland pointed out that the Ps `knows'…

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