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Stages & cycles of sleep AO1
*Most people have 5 cycles of sleep a night that last
approximately 90 minutes.…read more

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Stages & cycles of sleep AO2
*Objective evidence ­ EEG, EOG and EMG illustrate Psychology as
a science
*Artificiality of sleep laboratory ­ extrapolation issues
* Universality ­ stages & cycles of sleep have been found across
* Individual differences ­ reductionist ­ simplifies all sleep to a
set range of stages & cycles of sleep ­ people will differ
*AO3 - Weakness of the self-report method ­ The self-report
method yields data that may be subject to social desirability
bias…read more

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Functions of sleep:
Restoration theory AO1
*Purpose of sleep is to repair and recharge the
brain and body
*Oswald (1980) claimed that NREM sleep
restored the body and REM sleep restored the
*Horne (1988) distinguished between core (stage
4 & REM) and optional (stages 1 to 3) sleep and
claimed that only core sleep was critical for…read more

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Restoration theory AO2
* Case Studies - The studies of sleep deprivation in humans are
mainly case studies or small samples - difficult to extrapolate
from (Randy Gardner)
* Objective measurement - The physiological measures of
sleep, e.g.…read more

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Functions of sleep:
Evolutionary theory AO1
Sleep may serve an adaptive rather than a restorative function - sleep
has been naturally selected because it promotes survival.
Species that sleep have survived to reproduce & carry sleep into the
next generation as an adaptive behaviour - If it was non-adaptive, i.e.
does not have an evolutionary purpose, then it should have
disappeared.…read more

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Evolutionary theory AO2
·Genome lag - may have been more relevant in our evolutionary past. However, such
explanations may not be true of human sleep today as predators no longer pose such
as threat. It may well be that sleep patterns will change in time as evolution is a
gradual process and so the patterns we have at the moment may be due to genome
lag, which occurs because the environment changes much more quickly than the
genes.…read more

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Lifespan changes in sleep AO1
* Sleep needs vary by age, both qualitatively (different stages of sleep) and
quantitatively (how much sleep).New-born's sleep an average of 16 to 18 hours a
day. In the early months, an infants sleep is divided equally between REM and
non-REM sleep. A new-born baby will often enter REM sleep immediately and it
is not until they are 3 months old that the sequence of NREM and REM sleep is
established.…read more

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Lifespan changes AO2
* Objective measurements - Research into lifespan changes in sleep has
been conducted in numerous sleep laboratories throughout the world -
Dement (1999) himself carried out a detailed 7 year longitudinal study
called the Stanford Summer Sleep Camp, which used twenty-four 10, 11 and
12 year olds.
* External factors and co-sleep (Reductionism) - There are numerous factors
that affect the quality and quantity of sleep experienced. Work patterns,
children, aches and pains, and medication can all affect sleep patterns.…read more

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Insomnia AO1
* Primary Insomnia = chronic insomnia occurring in the absence
of any psychological or physical (medical) condition.
* Secondary Insomnia = chronic insomnia that can be explained by
a pre-existing psychological or physical (medical) conditions.
* There are numerous primary insomnia subtypes including:
Psychophysiological insomnia, Idiopathic insomnia and Sleep
state misperception.
* Psychophysiological insomnia - This is a form of anxiety-induced
insomnia and is sometimes known as learned insomnia or
behavioural insomnia.…read more


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