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*PSYA3 exam revision

*AO1 = 9 marks
* AO2 = 16 marks

* The examiner may ` cut up' the questions, but this

balance will always apply

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*Stages & cycles of sleep AO1
*Most people have 5 cycles of sleep a night that last
approximately 90 minutes.
*Electroencephalographs (EEGs) measure electrical
activity or brain waves, electro-oculograms (EOGs)
measure eye movement, and electromyograms (EMGs)
measure muscle movement and have been used to
distinguish the stages and cycles of…

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*Stages & cycles of sleep AO2

*Objective evidence ­ EEG, EOG and EMG illustrate Psychology as
a science
*Artificiality of sleep laboratory ­ extrapolation issues
* Universality ­ stages & cycles of sleep have been found across
* Individual differences ­ reductionist ­ simplifies all sleep to a

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*Functions of sleep:
Restoration theory AO1
*Purpose of sleep is to repair and recharge the
brain and body
*Oswald (1980) claimed that NREM sleep
restored the body and REM sleep restored the
*Horne (1988) distinguished between core (stage
4 & REM) and optional (stages 1 to 3)…

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*Restoration theory AO2
* Case Studies - The studies of sleep deprivation in humans are
mainly case studies or small samples - difficult to extrapolate
from (Randy Gardner)
* Objective measurement - The physiological measures of
sleep, e.g. REM activity and levels of neurochemicals, are
objective, which means that they…

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*Functions of sleep:
Evolutionary theory AO1
Sleep may serve an adaptive rather than a restorative function - sleep
has been naturally selected because it promotes survival.

Species that sleep have survived to reproduce & carry sleep into the
next generation as an adaptive behaviour - If it was non-adaptive, i.e.…

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*Evolutionary theory AO2
·Genome lag - may have been more relevant in our evolutionary past. However, such
explanations may not be true of human sleep today as predators no longer pose such
as threat. It may well be that sleep patterns will change in time as evolution is a

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*Lifespan changes in sleep AO1
* Sleep needs vary by age, both qualitatively (different stages of sleep) and
quantitatively (how much sleep).New-born's sleep an average of 16 to 18 hours a
day. In the early months, an infants sleep is divided equally between REM and
non-REM sleep. A new-born baby…

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* Lifespan changes AO2
* Objective measurements - Research into lifespan changes in sleep has
been conducted in numerous sleep laboratories throughout the world -
Dement (1999) himself carried out a detailed 7 year longitudinal study
called the Stanford Summer Sleep Camp, which used twenty-four 10, 11 and
12 year…

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* Insomnia AO1
* Primary Insomnia = chronic insomnia occurring in the absence
of any psychological or physical (medical) condition.
* Secondary Insomnia = chronic insomnia that can be explained by
a pre-existing psychological or physical (medical) conditions.
* There are numerous primary insomnia subtypes including:
Psychophysiological insomnia, Idiopathic insomnia…


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