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Outline Clinical Characteristics of Schizophrenia (5 marks)

The characteristics of schizophrenia can be categorised into two different types. Type 1
symptoms (Positive symptoms) and Type 2 symptoms (Negative symptoms).

Positive symptoms include things such as delusions, hallucinations and paranoia.
Patients may experience things such as hearing voices (auditory hallucinations), which…

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population. However, it was produced in Germany, making it culturally specific and does
not show the reliability of schizophrenia in other cultures.

The reliability of diagnosis in schizophrenia was further challenged by the findings that
there is a massive variation between countries of what schizophrenia is. This was
shown in…

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I am going to describe to two psychological therapies used to treat schizophrenia,
cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and psychoanalysis.

CBT is based on the assumption that people have distorted beliefs which are likely to
influence their behaviour, for example schizophrenics may believe that their behaviour is
being controlled by an…

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Support for psychoanalysis comes from Gottdiener who carried out a metaanalysis of
37 studies and found that psychoanalytical and cognitive behavioural therapies
produced similar levels of therapeutic benefits as well as the fact there was no
difference in improvement when psychotherapy was accompanied by antipsychotic
medication to just psychotherapy alone.…

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to their mental state making it low in validity. By using questionnaires it also makes it
high in social desirability as participants may want to look desirable to the researcher.

However, Liem measured patterns of parental communication in families with a
schizophrenic child and found no difference when compared to…

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Another psychological explanation of schizophrenia is the psychodynamic approach.
This was developed by Freud in 1924. He believed that schizophrenia was the result of
two related processes, regression to a preego stage. He attempted to reestablish ego
control. In schizophrenics the preego state might be them acting like a child,…

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Adoption studies look at adopted children to find out whether it is genetics or
environment which result in schizophrenic behaviour.

Tieari et al found that out of 164 adoptees whose biological mothers had been
diagnosed with schizophrenia only 6.7% also received a diagnostic of schizophrenia
compared to just 2% of…

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Haracz found that in a review of postmortem studies of schizophrenics, most of those
studied who showed high dopamine levels had received antipsychotic drugs shortly
before death, unlike postmortem studies of schizophrenics who hadn't received
medication these results showed that these individuals had normal levels of dopamine.
Therefore, this evidence…

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as the effectiveness of these drugs were so high as they are consistent and

A weakness of conventional antipsychotics as a biological therapy for schizophrenia is
that there is a risk of side effects such as Tardive dyskinesia and motivational deficits.
Hill found that 30% of people taking antipsychotic…

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There is little evidence to support ECT as a therapy for the treatment of schizophrenia,
however Tharyan and Adams found that real ECT was more effective than a placebo or
simulated ECT in terms of improvement for the patients.

However, due to the risks associated with ECT including memory dysfunction,…


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