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History revision notes ­ Russia
How successful was the tsar in dealing with the problems Russia faced 1894 to 1905?


Agricultural although some industry such as wool, linen, silk, leather, iron.
Largely serf based, inefficient and primitive methods and communications, only 40
years previous introduced first railways and steam…

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Middle class growth would pressure political changes in favour of an representative

Witte's economic policy (wanted to use state power to enact radical economic change)

The idea was as industry grew there would be a higher demand for other products so
further growth would ensue
Foreign investment ­ he…

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Social democrats (split in 1903) ­ industrial workers and proletariat peasantry support ­
wanted to overthrow tsarism and introduce socialism but differences emerged over tactics
and strategy ­ used striking methods

Bolsheviks ­ believed in small, tightly disciplined party of professional revolutionaries ­
argued a large group could be infiltrated…

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New revolutionary ideas and propaganda increase especially among soldiers


Witte became known as the Hangman due to repressive regime ­ called on army to stifle
strikes and protests

Declared martial law ­ could arrest people with limited evidence with on the spot
execution and `in field' trials


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Showed the army would remain loyal

Raised questions about to what extent liberals were prepared to go

Protestors were disunited and inexperienced so it failed ­ Trotsky said


Revolutionaries played a minor part in the revolution

Only a few revolutionaries in St Petersburg and Moscow

Wasn't due to…

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Industrial workers faced suppression as they wanted to crush the soviets

Troops returning from war proved loyal

Peasants and liberals clearly not ready for revolution as readily accepted political

Debates over whether there really was a revolution.

Only half of the criteria met for a revolution including naval mutiny,…

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How did the tsar survive the 1905 revolution?

The disorganisation and weakness of the opposition

Unrest was spontaneous and took revolutionaries by surprise

No group channelled or co-ordinated the unrest

No clear or capable leadership ­ Lenin was abroad and Trotsky was too Marxist for

Large sections of the…

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Tsar signed October manifesto

Witte hoped to create a government which included all views including the tsar and
his critics and thus keep tsarism safe

Outcome of 1905

October manifesto ­ overall a giant step towards a constitutional government although it
promised a lot but delivered very little

Offered civil…

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Voting was carried out by class so landed gentry and propertied townspeople had
more influence and their votes were more heavily weighted i.e. 1 gentry vote equal
to 45 worker vote

The state council (the high body of the Duma) comprised of half appointed by the
tsar and the other…

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Peasant's response

Started to rise up when they misinterpreted as the right to seize land that they
thought was their own

Peaked in 06 with burning houses but declined after Stolypin's reforms took effect,
appeased by ending the redemption payments

Army and navy response

Saw it as permission to ignore…


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