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WHAT SPARKED THE CIVIL WAR?
· Russia surrendered to Germany
· The Czech Legion (soldiers along side Russia) wanted to continued
· The Czech legion travelled to a port but got into an argument with local
Bolsheviks
· This led to a battle
· Rivals of Bolsheviks joined with the Czech
ALSO PEOPLE WERE FED UP OF LENINS RUSSIA AND OPPOSED TO HIS IDEAS
Whites Vs Reds
· Aristocrats +
Middle Class . · Bolsheviks
· Nationalists
· Peasants
· USA, France + UK
· Constituent
assembly
followers
· Tsar followers…read more

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OPPOSITION TO BOLSHEVIKS
Aristocrats ­ because the Bolsheviks took away their money and land
Nationalists ­ Due to treaty of Brest litovsk Germany humiliated Russia by taking away
wealth and land
Peasants ­ The Bolsheviks closed down the constituent assembly which would have put
the peasants in power
Constituent assembly parties ­ Bolsheviks banned other parties and the secret police
(CHEKA) arrested opponents- they also shot dead any who protested.
Supporters of Tsar ­ There was still chaos in Russia even with the Bolsheviks and they
wanted the tsar back
USA, France + UK ­ Russia had left them fighting against Germany alone ­ if they got rid
of the Bolsheviks maybe Russia would re-join the war.…read more

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LIFE IN LENIN'S RUSSIA
Peace - as promised, Lenin made the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany although it
meant that Russia lost vast amounts of its best industrial and agricultural land in Poland
and the Ukraine.
Communist economy - the Bolsheviks gave the land previously owned by the nobles to
the peasants, and factories were handed over to workers' committees.
Communist laws - the Bolsheviks banned religion; brought in an eight-hour day for
workers, as well as unemployment pay and pensions; abolished the teaching of history
and Latin, while encouraging science; and allowed divorce.
Communist propaganda - there was a huge campaign to teach everyone to read. Agit
trains' went around the country showing communist newsreels and giving lectures to
teach peasants about Communism.
Dictatorship - Lenin dismissed the Constituent Assembly, which was the parliament that
the Provisional Government had arranged, and declared the 'dictatorship of the
proletariat' (which was really, the dictatorship of Lenin). A secret police force called the
Cheka arrested, tortured and killed anybody who tried to destroy the Communist state.
GOOD BAD
· Money for those who · Lost land
couldn't find work · Banned religion
· Increase in education and · Lots of violence + Killings
literate skills…read more

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ECONOMIC HARDSHIP IN RUSSIA
WAR COMMUNISM
· caused famine
· terrible hardship
· money lost value
· Food rationing
· Peasants refused to co- operate
TREATY OF BREST-LITOSVK
· Lost industrial land
· Lost agricultural land
· Humiliated Russia
· Increased unemployment
VIOLENCE
· Mass murders of opposition
· Thousands of arrests for protests
· Strikes banned
· Imprisonment without trial…read more

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ROLES OF WHITE GENERALS
Admiral Kolchak - had 100,000 men, the entire treasury of Nicholas II, and military
supplies from America, Britain and France. In early 1919, he advanced, but his officers
were more interested in cocaine and vodka than battle, and his armies collapsed
when the Bolsheviks counter-attacked.
General Yudenich had 16,000 men and tanks. Yudenich attacked in October 1918 he
got so close to Petrograd that his men could see the trains pulling out of the station.
But then Trotsky turned up and inspired the people - 100,000 Red Guards and
ordinary workers armed themselves with rifles and fought off the tanks.
General Denikin. In July 1919, White armies, numbering 150,000 soldiers and led by
General Denikin and General Wrangel, attacked northwards from the Black Sea and
got to within 250 miles of Moscow. But then they ran out of money. Denikin
quarrelled with Wrangel. Ukrainians refused to fight with Russians. The White Terror
was so terrible that the peasants flocked to join the Reds. In October 1919, the Reds
counter-attacked and drove them back. The Whites defeated and penniless - became
a poor mass of naked humanity fleeing for its life'.
ALL GENERALS HAD BIG ARMIES BUT HAD BAD BATTLE PLANS AND LITTLE
ORGINISATION MEANING THEY WERE EASILY DEFEATED BY THE REDS.…read more

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