Russia 1905-41 Edexcel Summary

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  • Created on: 01-07-14 17:03
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Russia 1917: DIVIDED
> Modernisation
> Old Traditions
Problems of Ruling Russia
- 1/6th of the world ­ enormous country.
- 126 million people (125m = very poor, most of population = peasants
- Many nationalities (22) ­ less than 50% spoke Russian.
- Terrible living & dangerous conditions, long hours, low pay for FACTORY WORKERS
- Tsar in charge of army ­ not doing well (WW1)
- Bad transport system ­ few railways.
- Tsar: an absolute monarchy.
- Low temperatures ­ not as many crops.
1905 Revolution
OPPOSITION
- Constitutionalists: Limit Tsar's Power ­ "Limit Tsar, and welcome Parliament"
> Middle-Class Russians (Kadets, Octobrists)
- Revolutionaries: Overthrow Tsar ­ "Free the voice of the public"
> Social Revolutionaries: a peasant-led revolution.
> Social Democrats: a worker-led revolution (Bolsheviks = SDs)
SUPPORTERS
- Monarchists: Support Tsar, wanted return to rules of Tsar ­ "Cherish God, Cherish the Tsar"
1917 February Revolution
Impact of WW1
- Army: badly equipped & trained.
- Tsar: personal command of army.
- Tsarina in charge, mistakes made Tsar more unpopular.
- Conscription of factory workers = food shortages worsened.
- Inflation: price of food rises.
- Poor transport systems ­ horses taken for army use.
21st Feb Workers go on strike at Putilov factory
23rd Feb International Women's Day ­ strike = more powerful.
26th Feb Troops ordered to fire.
27th Feb Army mutinied & joined revolution.
The Provisional Government: Dual Government ­ 2nd Mar 1917

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Set up by members of the Duma.
- led by Alexander Kerensky.
- Shared power with the Petrograd Soviet.
- Temporary
+ Abolished Okhrana & press censorship.
+ Allowed political freedom.
- Dependant on Petrograd Soviet ­ who always rejected the PG.
- Opponents: Bolsheviks, could attack government for unsolved problems.
- Tried to continue war, failed, people turned against them.
- Unable to end food shortages.
- Didn't solve land problem.…read more

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Oct - Most of Petrograd's armed forces side with Trotsky' MRC.
24th Oct - Kerensky ­ shuts down Bolshevik newspapers, cuts off phone line to Bolshevik HQ.
- Lenin agrees to start the insurrection ­ Bolsheviks set off to capture key locations in
Petrograd.
25th Oct - Bolsheviks surround the Winter Palace & trap most of PG inside (Kerensky escaped)
- PG arrested.
- Congress of Soviets argues about Bolshevik takeover.
26th Oct - Congress of Soviets meets again, hands power to CPC.…read more

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Reds: Lenin & Trotsky (Bolsheviks, or Communists).
- Whites: Tsarists, middle-class, Mensheviks, Socialist Revolutionaries.
- Greens: Nationalists, peasants.
- Bolsheviks moved the capital of Russia to Moscow; more central and safer.
- 22nd October 1919 ­ White Armies on the outskirts of Petrograd ­ point of greatest danger.
- Allies stopped sending men, supplies ran out.
- White Army found themselves spread thin over a large area with few men.
- 7th Feb 1920 ­ Kolchak executed ­ end of threat to Bolsheviks.…read more

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Promises War Communism
- Free speech & free press. - Cheka and Red Terror.
- All power to soviets. - State control of factories (for Red Army needs).
- Abolition of Capital Punishment. - Executions.
- End to food shortages. - Food requisitioned for army, caused famine.
- Land to peasants. - State took all peasants' crops without payment.
- Improving workers' rights & conditions. - Banned & arrested strikers.…read more

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Two main candidates:
Trotsky ­ encouraged world revolution.
Stalin - advocated Communism in one country.
Trotsky ­ Most likely to take over:
> Lenin said he was most capable, but too self-confident.
> World revolution ­ There couldn't be a true socialist society until the world was socialist.
> Work came first & was arrogant.
> Hated bureaucrats taking over party.
> Lacked Stalin's network of supporters inside the party.…read more

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Stalin suspected Kirov wanted to take leadership from him.
- Kirov was assassinated in Dec 1934, Stalin claimed Trotsky was responsible.
- Stalin began to purge anyone who he suspected disloyalty from.
- These purges spread to the whole of the Soviet society.
How?
- Secret Police: Stalin used the OGPU (new version of the Cheka).
- Gulags: People were sent to Russian labour-prison camps.
> People were tortured, deprived of sleep, families threatened until they confessed to made up crimes.…read more

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Methods of propaganda:
- Films giving a false picture of success.
- Posters praising Stalin.
- Artists, writers, film-makers and singers employed by the state ­ commissioned to create things
glorifying the Soviet Union.
- School textbooks had to be approved by the state ­ Stalin teaching children his version of history.
- 5-yr plans for the economy were promoted.
- Records from the past changed ­ Trotsky removed from photos featuring him & Lenin.…read more

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Jobs like harvesting/ploughing done as a - State tells each collective farm what to farm &
community. sets production target.
- Old fashioned methods, no modern machinery. - Collective farms allocated tractors and combine
- Most produce used to feed the family, anything harvesters from Machine and Tractor Stations.
else is stored/sold. - Set a quota of produce it's allowed to keep to
feed workers.
- Kulaks were relatively wealthy & successful, but other peasant farms were not producing
enough to feed the population.…read more

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The Five Year Plans (1928 ­ 1938): expanding industrial production.
- First ('28 - '32): Iron, steel, coal, oil and electricity targets.
- Second ('33 ­ '37): Same industries & railways, tractors, combine harvesters.
- Third ('38-41): Included consumer items, i.e. radios.…read more

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