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Russia 1917: DIVIDED
> Modernisation
> Old Traditions

Problems of Ruling Russia
- 1/6th of the world ­ enormous country.
- 126 million people (125m = very poor, most of population = peasants
- Many nationalities (22) ­ less than 50% spoke Russian.
- Terrible living & dangerous conditions, long…

Page 2

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- Set up by members of the Duma.
- led by Alexander Kerensky.
- Shared power with the Petrograd Soviet.
- Temporary

+ Abolished Okhrana & press censorship.
+ Allowed political freedom.
- Dependant on Petrograd Soviet ­ who always rejected the PG.
- Opponents: Bolsheviks, could attack government for…

Page 3

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21st Oct - Most of Petrograd's armed forces side with Trotsky' MRC.
24th Oct - Kerensky ­ shuts down Bolshevik newspapers, cuts off phone line to Bolshevik HQ.
- Lenin agrees to start the insurrection ­ Bolsheviks set off to capture key locations in
25th Oct - Bolsheviks surround…

Page 4

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- Reds: Lenin & Trotsky (Bolsheviks, or Communists).
- Whites: Tsarists, middle-class, Mensheviks, Socialist Revolutionaries.
- Greens: Nationalists, peasants.

- Bolsheviks moved the capital of Russia to Moscow; more central and safer.
- 22nd October 1919 ­ White Armies on the outskirts of Petrograd ­ point of greatest danger.

Page 5

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Promises War Communism
- Free speech & free press. - Cheka and Red Terror.
- All power to soviets. - State control of factories (for Red Army needs).
- Abolition of Capital Punishment. - Executions.
- End to food shortages. - Food requisitioned for army, caused famine.
- Land to…

Page 6

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Two main candidates:
Trotsky ­ encouraged world revolution.
Stalin - advocated Communism in one country.

Trotsky ­ Most likely to take over:
> Lenin said he was most capable, but too self-confident.
> World revolution ­ There couldn't be a true socialist society until the world was socialist.
> Work…

Page 7

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- Stalin suspected Kirov wanted to take leadership from him.
- Kirov was assassinated in Dec 1934, Stalin claimed Trotsky was responsible.
- Stalin began to purge anyone who he suspected disloyalty from.
- These purges spread to the whole of the Soviet society.


- Secret Police: Stalin used…

Page 8

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Methods of propaganda:
- Films giving a false picture of success.
- Posters praising Stalin.
- Artists, writers, film-makers and singers employed by the state ­ commissioned to create things
glorifying the Soviet Union.
- School textbooks had to be approved by the state ­ Stalin teaching children his version…

Page 9

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- Jobs like harvesting/ploughing done as a - State tells each collective farm what to farm &
community. sets production target.
- Old fashioned methods, no modern machinery. - Collective farms allocated tractors and combine
- Most produce used to feed the family, anything harvesters from Machine and Tractor Stations.…

Page 10

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The Five Year Plans (1928 ­ 1938): expanding industrial production.
- First ('28 - '32): Iron, steel, coal, oil and electricity targets.
- Second ('33 ­ '37): Same industries & railways, tractors, combine harvesters.
- Third ('38-41): Included consumer items, i.e. radios.

Increases in production
- Coal - from 36…


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