1905 Revolution : Events
1. Soviet party was set up
2. Mutiny on the Potempkin
3. Peasant uprising
4. Worker strikes
1905 Revolution : Causes
1. Bloody Sunday
2. Russians lost the Russio - Japanese war
3. Middle class wanted a say in how the country was run ( Duma )
4. Workers wanted better conditions
1905 Revolution : How the Tsar survived
1. Appointed Experienced ministers (Stolypin and Witte)
2. October Manifest (Duma was set up)
3. November Manifesto (Peasants were given land)
4. Loyal army crushed the Soviet party
1906 - 1914
1. Stolypin attempted to modernize agriculture but wasn't given enough time and peasants were stubborn
2. Duma was weak and had little power
3.Post 1911 Goverment became more violent.
4. Rasputins influence increases
1914 - 1917
1. WW1 begins 1914
2. Tsar makes himself Commander in Cheif -> this is a mistake because it leaves Rasputin and his wife alone and it makes him more to blame for the deaths.
3.Defeats continue in WW1
4. Food Shortages
5. Forced Conscription
1917 Revolution : Events
1. Many strikes and protests from peasants and workers.
2. Army joins rebellion (Key point).
3. Tsar has to abdicate.
After 1917 Revolution (Prov. Gov)
1. The Provisional government was set up. (Kerensky was the leader)
2. Made up of Tsar supporters
3. They continued WW1
4. Soviets come back
5. Food shortages
6. Lenin Returns
Kornilov Affair - Aug 1917
1. July Days Protests, Against war
2. Kerensky crushed the protests
3. Trotsky was imprisoned and Lenin extradited
Bolshevik rise of power
1. Kornilov Marches to Petrograd
2. Kerensky panics and gives weapons to bolsheviks.
3. Kornilov never arrives
4. Bolsheviks take power
1917 October Revolution : Why it happened
1. It was planned by Lenin
2. P.G were so unpopular they had little/no support
3. Trotsky had the Red Guards and Organized the night.
4. Bolsheviks seized key points; Winter palace, Railway stations and telegraph stations.
How the Bolsheviks secured power.
1. Okhrana were set up to destroy opposition
2. Holds elections but ignored the results
3. Ends the war with Germany
4. Decree on workers control
Civil war : Reds and Whites
Reds; Bolsheviks and their supporters
Whites; Mensheviks, Socialist revolutionaries, tsarists and foreign intervention.
Why the Reds won the Civil war
Reds positives; United aim, Geography, used ex-tsarist officers, Patriotic choice, Trotsky, War Communism.
White negatives; No purpose, lacked resources and communication, lacked leaders of ability.
War communism : what is it?
2. Factories were taken control of by the government
3. Seizing peasants grain to feed army's.
War Communsim : Reactions
1. Won the war but very unpopular
2. economy is exhausted by it
3.peasant revolts / Kronstadt revolt
N.E.P (replaced war communism)
- some capitalism
- peasants can sell grain for profit, these were kulaks
- small factories could be privately owned
- trade is allowed
- the economy grew under the New economic policy (NEP) but it was unstable.
How did Stalin come into control
Strengths of Stalin;
He was important in organising Lenin's funeral, he was relatable to the people (humble origins), he was general secretary of the party.
He was arrogant, he was more educated meaning the party associated with him less, he was scary as the leader of the red army, he underestimated Stalin.
What does Stalin do?
1. Destroys Trotsky
2. Destroys Zinonev + kamerev
3. Destroys Bukharin (over NEP)
5 Year plans
- Run by Gosplan
- New factories are built
- Huge targets set for workers and industry
- Focus on Coal iron steel, chemicals and transport.
- tanks and military weapons were build instead of luxury items.
Were the 5 year plans Successful
Production grew, lots of weapons meant they could win the war, Stakhanovites for benefits.
Millions died from slave labour, Production results were not completely true, Bribery.
Collectivisation : Why?
To destroy kulaks
to increase production of food to fuel the 5-year plans
grain to export
Collectivisation : What happened
- Large collective farms
- Massive peasant resistance
- Stalin pauses to start collectivisation
- Huge famine
The Purges : Why
Stalin conducted them because he was paranoid
Scapegoats were needed
Destroy rivals - Kirov, Bukharin, Army leaders
The Purges : What were they
NKVD arrested and killed many people
NKVD got purged themselves
Aimed at teachers generals and managers