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The traditional view of the bank robber with a
mask over his face waving a shotgun around is
everyone's idea of robbery. But, can it be said to
be robbery if two people, holding their Oyster
cards, run into each other at a tube station and
pick up each other's card after they have been
dropped in the collision; one card has little credit
on it, the other has a substantial credit balance?
What circumstances might change the accident to
a robbery?…read more

Slide 3

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The offence of robbery if defined in the Theft
act 1968, s8(1) as:
` A person is guilty of robbery if he steals, and
immediately before or at the time of doing so, and
in order to do so, he uses force on any person or
puts or seeks to put any person in fear of being
then and there subjected to force'…read more

Slide 4

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1) Actus reus of
Actus Reus
2) Using force or
4) To any person of fear of force
3) Immediately
before or at the
time of theft…read more

Slide 5

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1) Actus Reus of theft ­ As robbery is an
aggravated form of theft, all the elements of
theft must be present in order for robbery to be
established. (Dawson 1976)
2) Force/ Fear of force (Clouden 1987) ­ four main
points to remember:
4) Force must be
used to facilitate
theft. The essence
of robbery is that
2) Force may be force is used to
1) The level of force
applied to the person commit theft so
may be minimal (
or their property ( 3) Fear of force will there must be a
pushing. Jostling) as
grabbing a handbag suffice. causal link between
well as more serious
without touching the the theft and the
owner) force used.…read more

Slide 6

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Element of Actus CASE NAME Information
LEVEL OF FORCE DAWSON AND Defendants stood around the
JAMES (1976) victim, one of them nudged the
victim. This caused the victim to
lose his balance so that his wallet
could be easily taken. Sufficient
force for a conviction.
FORCE MAY BE CLOUDEN (1987) Defendant followed a woman who
APPLIED TO THE was carrying a shopping basket in
PERSON OF her left hand. He approached her
THEIR PROPERTY from behind and wrenched the
basked down and out of her grasp
with both hands and ran off with
it. Sufficient force for a
conviction.…read more

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