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Conflict Approach: Systematic sampling Number Sampling Techniques: Participant observation (PO)
Feminism conflict theory- society is participants in sampling frame Stratified Sampling: researcher joins in a group
`Patriarchal'-male dominated and then pick participants at Classifying population and participants in its
Some believe equality is now with us regular intervals. into categories-choosing activities as a full member
(liberal feminists) people in those on a daily basis in order to
Others think society is still very Positive of Structural interviews- categories in the same investigate it.
patriarchal (Radical Feminists) gives interviewer opportunity to proportion as they are in
explain what questions mean. population. Ouvert PO- Researcher tells
First wave of feminism: 1900-1930 /ask interviewee to elaborate group so they're aware of
Second wave of feminism: 1960's -1970's Quota sampling: his/her research activities
Third wave of Feminism: 1990's onwards Negative of structural interviews- classifying population into
Believe woman should have same status sample size quite small- categories. Asking people Covert PO- Researcher hoins
and opportunity's as men. interviews can take long time who fit in the categories in group without informing
to participate. When you members of his/her
Stages in the research Process: have the right number of research activities.
1) Developing the aims/ hypothesis of each, stop recruiting for
the research that category. Positive PO-
2) Carrying out pilot studies Studying Allows researcher
3) Selecting samples
4) Collect Data
Society Opportunity Sampling: taking the sample fro to study group in
people who're available at the time the study is its normal,
5) Analyse the data carried out and fit the criteria you're looking for. everyday setting-
6) Evaluate the data Often used by sociologists and market less artificial
Sociologists vs. Journalists Positive of group interviews- may Snowball sampling- often used
Journalists-less systematic and thorough, get more honest answers because when want to find a group of Negative PO-
tight deadlines to meet, may be biased other group members can back people who have something in very time
Sociologists- research is peer reviewed. them up common but may not want to be consuming
Negative of Group interviews- found. Find 1 member of the group and
Sources of primary data: Questionnaires, unable to guarantee and ask if they know anyone else expensive
interviews, observation confidentiality who could take part then asking for
Sources of Secondary data: official Longitudinal study- study of the same more people and so on.
statistics, mass media, other sociologists group of people over a period of time.
Pilot study-small scale trial run carried out before main Self selected/volunteer sampling: Participants
research. It saves money, time and the can help see becoming part of a study because they volunteer
problems for the real study to improve on. when asked /in response to an advert. Vivien Sch page 2…read more

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Non-PO- researcher Validity- Data's valid if it Secondary Qualitative Anonymity- Participants
observes group activities gives a true picture of what Data collected by someone names/ identities mustn't
without taking part is being studied. else in the form of be revealed
Positives: May be less Positives: Less time Confidentiality- Participants
Quantitative methods-
influenced by personal consuming and lets us find responses aren't discussed
easier to repeat and is seen
feelings about the group out about things we may with anyone else
as more reliable.
and its members other wise struggle to find.
Qualitative methods- more Negative: We don't know Covert Research- The
Negatives: more difficult for how the data was collected researcher works under
likely to give a true picture
researcher to see the group and if the data was cover so participants aren't
and is seen as more valid.
through the eyes of its collected in the way we aware that research is being
members want it to. carried out.
Triangulation- when more
than 1 method of data is The idea of "Race" refers to
Sociologists taking an
used. the attempt to divide
interactionist approach are
more likely to concentrate
Data collected from one Studying humans according to
method can check accuracy physical characteristics (skin
on qualitative data and
of data gained through Society colour) into different racial
more interested for
another. groups. Sociologists
studying the findings from
observation/unstructured generally regard this as a
interviews rather pointless exercise as
Response rate- how
it has no value in explaining
many people respond Informed consent- Researchers
Sociologists taking a more human culture. This is
to the need to explain exactly what
structural view are more because human behaviour is
questionnaire/survey participants will have to do in the
likely to look at quantitate largely the result of
Low response rate will study so participants can agree to
data fro social surveys. socialisation and cannot be
make the results take part, fully informed
Allowing them to compare explained purely by
unrepresentative and
results between the groups biological characteristics.
they cannot be Secondary Quantitative
in society. Therefore sociologists use
generalised. Some official statistics are more valid the term ethnicity.
than others because for some things
Reliability- if the data is reliable then it can such as birth there is a legal
be repeated and consistently come up with requirement things are recorded.
the same results. Whereas crime for example aren't
have to be reported. Vivien Sch page 3…read more

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1870 Education Act 1944 Butler Education Act State and Private Schools Vivien Sch Page 1
·tried to unsure basic ·Aim to give all students equal ·State- non fee-paying
education was available to chance to develop talents and approx 90% of students
all children from ages of 5- abilities in free, state-run education, ·Private: independent
11 3 stage structure created: schools, fee paying, 7% of Secondary Education
·Between 1870-1944, 3 ·Primary-up to 11 included infancy students ·Children 11-16 (most have
types of school available and junior stages 6th form-up to18)
(based on social ·Secondary-11-15 (leaving age raised ·Some areas-middle
·Elementary school- to 16 in 1976) schools-bridge from
working class up to 14 (free) ·Further/Higher ­Education beyond
·Free-paying grammar school leaving age Education primary- secondary: 8-12;8-
schools-middle class, limited ·Main changes in organisation of ·Most provided by state-
no. of scholarship available secondary sector comprehensives-free
to working class boys ·Aim-introduce meritocratic system
·Expensive free-paying where children would receive Pre school and primary
public schools- upper class. education based on own abilities Education Independed Sector
rather than parents money. Result ·Pre-schools: children under
was tripartite systems 5 includes: Schools that charge fees,
·Day nurseries: provided by made up of:
Tripartite System 1965-Start of local Private schools-all that
·Children testes at 11 by 11+ exam. Comprehensive System authority/voluntary/private charge fees
Results of this meant children were to: ·Thought to be a good idea- ·Play groups: care and Public schools- older and
·Secondary modern- general education social barriers broken down, learning (mainly 3-5 years) more famous independent
for less academic (approx. 75%) mix of abilities and ·Nursery Education: nursery secondary's e.g. Eton
·Secondary Technical- practical backgrounds e.g. class, schools/ classes attached to About 7% go to
education eg. Crafts skills (approx 5%) equal education for all primary schools (up to 5) independent
·Grammar- academic education for students. ·Primary Education: Don't have to follow same
more academic (approx 20%) ·Problems- limit parental children 5-11 rules e.g. national
·Marxists view as bad and unfair, still choice, academically abled ·Most provides by state curriculum
giving unequal chances students held back (could through Local Authorities Critics- children of rich
·Functionalists view as good ­need a be stressed) (LA) greater advantage just
way of sorting most talented for most ·Streamed-pupils put in because parents can pay.
talented jobs. `streams' for all lessons
·Setting/Banding- pupils in
set for 1 lesson e.g. maths…read more

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Further and higher -Limits parental choice ·League Tables
Education -Mixed ability classes hold ·Ofsted
·Education beyond some back ·Local Management of
compulsory age of 16. -Less able students may not schools (LMS)
·Can study at sixth form/ get all attention they need ·Grant maintained schools Education
college/skills training -Streamed classes may be (now foundation schools)
courses/ apprenticeships seen to reflect social class ·City technology colleges
·At 18 can study at higher differences.
levels e.g. uni Marxist and Functionalist views on
·All further and higher 1979- New Vocationalism Selective Role (Choosing most
private education able for most important jobs)
education colleges funded Introduced ·Functionalists agree with it- need
by government. ·Politicians felt education ·F- All individuals have equal
some way of sorting most talented chances in school career.
was emphasising academic worthwhile/able into most important
achievement-damaging MERITOCRATIC SYSTEM-those
Developments in further jobs. who achieve high
Education economy because shortage ·Marxists disagree-unfair. Child
of skilled individuals qualifications seen as most
·At 16, decide whether to shouldn't receive better education just able, rewarded with high pay
remain in full time ·Brought in work related and because they can pay.
enterprise learning at KS4 and higher status in society.
education ·M- Don't think education
/apprenticeship/employme ·NVQ's- train students in
Role of Education in society systems offers everyone
nt specific jobs
·F- education plays beneficial role in equal opportunities. Design to
·Government want children ·GCSE's and A-levels which
society benefit more powerful
to remain in full time provide broad intro to e.g.
·M- Powerful groups in society use groups. Teachers and schools
education after 16 for Health and social care
education to impose own beliefs reject working class children
Britain to remain completive ·Diplomas (2008)- usually
and values on rest of society. who underperform.
and prosperous in a global less-academic who take
Beneficial role for some groups.
economy. them.
1988 education Reform Act Economic Role (teaching skills for work) Vivien Sch
Positives and negatives of
·Aim- introduce ·F- education prepares young people for Page 2
competition between future occupational roles. Teach the skills
+Social barriers broken down
schools (marketisiation of necessary for work.
+More subjects and facilities
education) ·M-Children from less powerful groups (i.e.
·Hoped standards would be Working class) learns necessary skills for
+Cheaper to fund and run
raised. It introduced : lower-status occupations and vica versa for
+Every student has equal
·SATS middle and higher classes
opportunities…read more

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Socialisation role (teaching norms and
New labour 1997
Themes were: raising
F-Trough school, young people can learn a
standards, Education
common culture, beliefs and expectations.
reducing inequality,
m-see education as socialising kids into
promoting diversity and
accepting values of powerful groups.
Reducing Class sizes Sure start
Social control (teaching acceptance of rules
Less distractions Families with pre-school children
and authority)
More questions answered Activities they cannot do at home e.g. Art
·F- School acts as agency of social by
More time with teacher &crafts
teaching rules e.g. Obedience and
Students can get better grades
·M-Social control in education system seen Faith schools
Specialist schools Re curriculum may reflect faith status
as reflecting social control in wider society
Receive additional funding Positive -run in the same way as state schools
which benefits more powerful groups.
Secondary education Negative -only let in own faith, differ faith do
Political role( teaching people to be Can fund 10% of student leans not mix
effective citizens and creating social
cohesion) Nursery Places Academies
·F-People learn about society through Available to all 3-5 year olds Allowed to select part of their intake
education,. They accept the political Numeracy and literacy skills Thought to exclude some students who are less
system introduced able with special education needs
·M-Only certain political ideas and Positive: parents able to work
opinions tolerated. Radical ideas without paying Outstanding Academies
rejected/ridiculed ­ political ideas of School that were rated "outstanding" in OFSTED
powerful groups can be accepted by Special measures could apply to be academies
individuals. Take place at school when OFSTED Their money comes directly from the
Alternative forms of Educational fails government, not the LA.
provisions: Extra people brought in to help
·Home schooling- usually carried out by Get improved school status, Free schools
parents/professional tutors. If people wish government help extra funds New schools set up by people such as
to provide different learning environment parents/charities
from local schools. 24 across the country opened in September 2011
Vivien Sch Page 3 Funded directly by the government
·Another form comes in the way a school's
organised and types of values it teach. Freedom to set their own curriculum…read more

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Thank you so much x

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