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Researching domestic violence:
Few opportunities for observation and interview data is difficult to validate (takes place in private)
Under-represented in OCS (police are often not called) and is under-reported in victimisation studies
There are few sampling frames for studying it ­ information is confidential and not readily available
Traumatic nature…

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Researching criminal justice:
The police: A lot of police work takes place on the street < access issues > some aspects of policing
takes place within closed settings and is off-limits for researchers - access to senior officers is extremely
May view the researcher as an 'outsider' and not…

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Laboratory experiments
1. Experimental group: exposed to a variable that the researcher believes will have an effect
2. Control group: keep variables constant and measure any change

Practical issues of using laboratory experiments:
Open systems ­ society is an open system: countless factors at work in any given situation ­…

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Gives researcher even less control over variables ­ can be even less certain whether a thought
experiment has discovered the cause of something

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Practical issues in using questionnaires
Quick and cheap to gather large amounts of data
No need to train interviewers and observers to collect data ­ respondents usually complete and return
Usually easy to quantify and analyse, especially with pre-coded answers and closed-ended questions
Data may be…

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Structured - standardised questions
Unstructured - guided conversations: interviewer is free to vary questions and ask follow-up questions
Semi-structured - same set of questions but interviewers can probe info and ask additional questions
Group - relatively unstructured and include a focus group

Interviewer bias = the way in which…

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HOWEVER...those who have the time or
willingness to be interviewed may be untypical
- makes for unrepresentative findings and
undermines the validity of any generalisations

The relationship between researcher and researched reflects
the exploitative nature of gender relationships
Graham: it is patriarchal and gives a distorted, invalid picture…

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Positivism Interpretivism
Quantification Validity through involvement:
Open ended questions mean that answers cannot Allow the researcher to gain an understanding
be easily categorised and quantified - less useful through involvement: develop a rapport and gain
therefore for establishing cause-and-effect insight into the world through their eyes, learning
relationships, correlating variable…

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Non-Participant Observation: where the researcher observes without interfering
Participant Observation: where the researcher becomes part of what they observe
Structured: a set of criteria in categories that need to be recorded
Unstructured: nothing set, just record as much important information as possible
Overt Observation: the researcher reveals their true…




Great document! Must have taken forever to make lol, thanks for sharing! :)

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