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CRIME AND DEVIANCE ­ KEY TERMS
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DEVIANCE AND CONTROL THEORIES
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Anomie

Term first used by Durkheim
Describes the breakdown of social expectations and behaviour
Later used by Merton to explain reactions to situations where socially approved goals
were impossible for the majority of the population to…

Page 2

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Social control imposed by people on potential or actual offenders
Formal Social Control
The process whereby laws and rules are enforced by agencies that have been created
specifically for this purpose, such as the police
Informal Social Control
The process whereby individuals are encouraged or coerced by people they mix…

Page 3

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In control theories, the forms of social control preventing people acting in a deviant way
Underclass
Term used by Charles Murray
Describes a distinctive `class' of people whose lifestyle involves taking what they can from
the state and living a life involving petty crime and sexual gratification
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STRAIN…

Page 4

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Explanations of crime and deviance focusing on the idea that those who deviate hold
different values to the majority
Subterranean Values

A set of deviant values that exist alongside the socially approved values, but are usually
kept hidden or under control
They may emerge in certain social situations, such as…

Page 5

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The various stages that a person passes through on their way to being seen as, and seeing
themselves as, deviant

Folk Devils
Groups associated with moral panics who are seen as troublemakers by the media

Incest
Sex between close members of a family

Inuits

Previously known as `eskimos'
Labelling Theorists…

Page 6

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PATTERNS OF CRIME
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British Crime Survey

Annual victimisation survey carried out by the Home Office
Home Office

Government department responsible for criminal justice matters

Islington Crime Surveys

Famous local victimization studies focusing on one area of North London

Official Statistics
Statistics released by government agencies

Plea-Bargaining

Where there…

Page 7

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ENVIRONMENTAL APPROACHES: THE CRIMINOLOGY OF PLACE AND TIME
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Cognitive Maps
A personal map of a own based on an individual's daily activities

Collective Efficacy

The ability of a community to achieve their aims ( which usually include limiting crime)

Concentric Zones
Widening circles

Cultural Transmission

Values are passed…

Page 8

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The process by which an area moves from being predominantly law-abiding to
predominantly accepting antisocial behaviour

Zone of Transition

The cheapest, least desirable zones of the city, into which immigrants are moved

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GENDER ISSUES AND OFFENDING
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Drift

Term used by Matza
Describes a state where young…

Page 9

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Crime and/or forms of harm perpetrated on the environment
Globalisation

Better methods of communication allow goods, knowledge and services to cross distances
and national borders easily

Law Evasion

Acting in such a way as to break the spirit of laws while technically conforming to them

Occupational Crime

Crimes committed against…

Page 10

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Lord Scarman led a government inquiry into the causes of these `riots'

Macpherson Inquiry

Sir William Macpherson led an inquiry into the events surrounding the murder of Stephen
Lawrence (allegedly) by White racists, and the subsequence police investigation

Marginalized

A sociological term referring to those who are pushed to the…

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