Crime and Deviance Key Terms

Taken from the Collins Sociology A2 for AQA book

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CRIME AND DEVIANCE ­ KEY TERMS
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DEVIANCE AND CONTROL THEORIES
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Anomie
Term first used by Durkheim
Describes the breakdown of social expectations and behaviour
Later used by Merton to explain reactions to situations where socially approved goals
were impossible for the majority of the population to reach by legitimate means
Collective Conscience
A term used by Durkheim
Describes the core, shared values of society
Consensual
Where the vast majority of people share similar values
Correlation
A statistical relationship between two or more social events
Crime
Activities that break the law of the land and are subject to official punishment
Criminologists
Social scientists who study crime
Critical Criminology
Work of criminologists influenced by Marxist thinking
Delinquency
Criminal or antisocial acts committed by young people
Deviance
Behaviour that is different from the normal expectations of a society and is views as
`wrong' or `bad'
Discipline
A term used by Foucault
Merging the notions of formal and informal social control
External Patterns of Social Control

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Social control imposed by people on potential or actual offenders
Formal Social Control
The process whereby laws and rules are enforced by agencies that have been created
specifically for this purpose, such as the police
Informal Social Control
The process whereby individuals are encouraged or coerced by people they mix with into
conforming with what are perceived as appropriate values
Internalized Forms of Social Control
Social control that people impose upon themselves via their conscience, which is, in turn,
largely the result of their upbringing…read more

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In control theories, the forms of social control preventing people acting in a deviant way
Underclass
Term used by Charles Murray
Describes a distinctive `class' of people whose lifestyle involves taking what they can from
the state and living a life involving petty crime and sexual gratification
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STRAIN AND SUBCULTURAL THEORIES
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Edgework
Derives from Lyng
Refers to activities of young males which provide them with thrills derived from the real
possibility of physical or emotional harm
E.g.…read more

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Explanations of crime and deviance focusing on the idea that those who deviate hold
different values to the majority
Subterranean Values
A set of deviant values that exist alongside the socially approved values, but are usually
kept hidden or under control
They may emerge in certain social situations, such as at parties or after drinking alcohol
Techniques of Neutralization
Justifications four our deviant actions
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CRITICAL CRIMINOLOGIES
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Crimes of the State
Actions performed, or permitted to be performed, by the government that…read more

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The various stages that a person passes through on their way to being seen as, and seeing
themselves as, deviant
Folk Devils
Groups associated with moral panics who are seen as troublemakers by the media
Incest
Sex between close members of a family
Inuits
Previously known as `eskimos'
Labelling Theorists
A theory developed from symbolic interactionism adapted for using in studies of deviance
Master Status
When people are looked at by others solely on the basis of one type of act (good or bad)
which…read more

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PATTERNS OF CRIME
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British Crime Survey
Annual victimisation survey carried out by the Home Office
Home Office
Government department responsible for criminal justice matters
Islington Crime Surveys
Famous local victimization studies focusing on one area of North London
Official Statistics
Statistics released by government agencies
Plea-Bargaining
Where there is an informal (usually unspoken) agreement that if an accused person pleads
guilty to a lesser crime than that of which he or she is accused, the prosecution will agree
Repeat Victimisation
Where people are…read more

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ENVIRONMENTAL APPROACHES: THE CRIMINOLOGY OF PLACE AND TIME
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Cognitive Maps
A personal map of a own based on an individual's daily activities
Collective Efficacy
The ability of a community to achieve their aims ( which usually include limiting crime)
Concentric Zones
Widening circles
Cultural Transmission
Values are passed on from one generation to the next
Differential Association
The theory that deviant behaviour is learned from, and justified by, family and friends
Night-Time Economy
Refers to the way that a leisure industry has developed…read more

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The process by which an area moves from being predominantly law-abiding to
predominantly accepting antisocial behaviour
Zone of Transition
The cheapest, least desirable zones of the city, into which immigrants are moved
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GENDER ISSUES AND OFFENDING
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Drift
Term used by Matza
Describes a state where young men are unsure about their identity and their place in
society
Male stream
A term used to describe the fact that male ways of thinking have dominated criminology
Normative Masculinity
The socially approved idea of…read more

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Crime and/or forms of harm perpetrated on the environment
Globalisation
Better methods of communication allow goods, knowledge and services to cross distances
and national borders easily
Law Evasion
Acting in such a way as to break the spirit of laws while technically conforming to them
Occupational Crime
Crimes committed against a company by an employee
Primary Crimes
Environmentally damaging acts that are currently legal in some or all countries, but have
very harmful consequences for the planet
Transnational Crime
Crime that is organised and committed…read more

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Lord Scarman led a government inquiry into the causes of these `riots'
Macpherson Inquiry
Sir William Macpherson led an inquiry into the events surrounding the murder of Stephen
Lawrence (allegedly) by White racists, and the subsequence police investigation
Marginalized
A sociological term referring to those who are pushed to the edge of society in cultural,
status or economic terms
Mugging
A term used to describe street robbery
It has no status as a specific crime in England and Wales
Statistical Artefact
The `problem' emerges from…read more

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