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FORMATION ­ REWARD/NEED
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SATISFACTION MODEL
AO1
Click to edit Master text styles AO2 AO3
- WE ENTER INTO A RELATIONSHIP BECAUSE MAY & HAMILTON - CLASSICAL CONDITIONING; GENDER DIFFERENCE
Second
THE INDIVIDUAL level ASKED FEMALE STUDENTS TO RANK MALES ON LEVELS OF REWARDS OF A RELATIONSHIP DIFFER BETWEEN THE
CONCERNED CREATES
POSITIVE FEELINGS WITHIN US ATTRACTIVENESS. GROUPS EITHER EXPERIENCED PLEASANT, GENDERS. WOMEN MAY LEARN TO PUT THEIR NEEDS
- THIS FOLLOWS THE PRINCIPLES OF UNPLEASANT OR NO MUSIC WHILE COMPLETING THE SECONDARY TO THE NEEDS OF OTHERS, FOR EXAMPLE IN
Third
OPERANT CONDITIONING; level RANKING. THOSE WITH UNPLEASANT MUSIC RANKED THE MOTHERHOOD. THIS SUGGESTS WOMEN MAY NOT LOOK
- BEING IN A RELATIONSHIP IS POSITIVELY MALES LOWER, VICE VERSA PLEASANT. STUDENTS HAD AT THE REWARDS OF A RELATIONSHIP DURING
Fourth level
REINFORCED BY FEELINGS OF INTIMACY ASSOCIATED MEN AND UNPLEASANT MUSIC, IMPACTING FORMATION. THIS GOES AGAINST THE IDEA THAT WE LIKE
AND NEGATIVELY REINFORCED BY THE THEIR VIEW ON THEM. INDIVIDUALS WHO POSITIVELY REWARD AND REINFORCE
Fifth
INDIVIDUAL NOT WANTINGlevel
TO BE LONELY US.
OR SAD ARGYLE ­ OPERANT CONDITIONING;
- ALSO FOLLOWS THE PRINCIPLES OF FOUND INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE REWARDING (E.G. ETHNOCENTRISM
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING; FRIENDLY, HELPFUL ETC.) TEND TO BE LIKED THE MOST. COLLECTIVIST CULTURES DO NOT HAVE AN EMPHASIS ON
- WE LIKE SOME INDIVIDUALS BECAUSE THEY POSITIVE NON-VERBAL SIGNS (E.G. SMILING) PROVIDE THE NEED FOR REWARD AND SATISFACTION OF THE
ARE ASSOCIATED WITH PLEASANT EVENTS. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT OPPORTUNITIES. ALSO FOUND INDIVIDUAL. HELPING OTHERS AND SELF SACRIFICING CAN
THESE FEELINGS LEAD TO EITHER A IF WE MEET SOMEONE IN A NEGATIVE STATE, AND THEY BE A REWARD IN ITSELF, SO THIS MAY DRIVE FORMATION
POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE EVALUATION OF HELP US ESCAPE THAT STATE, THEY PROVIDE US WITH RATHER THAN PERSONAL REWARD. THIS GOES AGAINST
THE INDIVIDUAL NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT. THIS INCREASES OUR LIKING THE IDEA THAT ALL PEOPLE DESIRE REWARDS IN THE
OF THEM . FORMATION OF A RELATIONSHIP.
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FORMATION ­ THE MATCHING
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HYPOTHESIS
AO1 AO2 AO3
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- PEOPLE TEND TO BE ATTRACTED TO PEOPLEMURSTEIN EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH
WHO ARE ON A Second
SIMILAR level
ATTRACTIVENESS
ASKED PPTS TO INDIVIDUALLY RANK THE TWO MEMBERS OF AN OPPOSING VIEW IS CARRIED BY THE EVOLUTIONARY
LEVEL. A LONG TERM COUPLE IN TERMS OF SOCIAL DESIRABILITY. APPROACH TO RELATIONSHIPS. IN THIS APPROACH, IT
- IF THIS IS FOLLOWED, IN A LONG TERM FOUND THAT THE RANK GIVEN TO EACH PERSON WAS IS SUGGESTED THAT MALES MATE FOR REPRODUCTION,
RELATIONSHIP, Third
THERE WILL level
BE LESS MATCHED BY THEIR RESPECTIVE PARTNER. SUPPORTS THE WHILE WOMEN MATE FOR RESOURCES. THIS IS DOES
OCCURRENCES OF JEALOUSY IDEA THAT WE FORM RELATIONSHIPS BASED ON THE IDEA OF NOT CONSIDER THE NEED FOR SOCIAL DESIRABILITY,
- THE HYPOTHESIS Fourth
IS SPLIT INTOlevel
TWO PARTS;
MATCHING SOCIAL DESIRABILITY AND THOSE WHO ARE BUT RATHER FOR SURVIVAL. THE OPPOSING VIEW
- THE MORE SOCIALLY DESIRABLE A PERSON IS,
MATCHED GO ON TO HAVE LONG TERM RELATIONSHIPS. HIGHLIGHTS THE DEBATE ON THE REASONS FOR
Fifth
THE MORE DESIRABLE THEY level
WOULD EXPECT RELATIONSHIP FORMATION
THEIR PARTNER TO BE WALSTER
- COUPLES WHO ARE MATCHED IN TERMS OF INVITED STUDENTS TO A DANCE UNDER THE ASSUMPTION GENDER DIFFERENCE
SOCIAL DESIRABILITY ARE MORE LIKELY TO
THAT THEY WOULD BE `MATCHED' WITH OTHER STUDENTS RESEARCH HAS FOUND THAT PHYSICAL
HAVE A HAPPY, LONG TERM RELATIONSHIP ON A VARIETY OF FACTORS, WHEN IN REALITY IT WAS ATTRACTIVENESS IS VALUED MORE HIGHLY BY MEN
THAN COUPLES WHO ARE NOT MATCHED RANDOM. FOUND THOSE WHO WERE PAIRED WITH THAN WOMEN. THIS CAN BE DUE TO THE SUGGESTION
SOMEONE OF A HIGHER SOCIAL DESIRABILITY SHOWED MEN CAN MORE EASILY COMPENSATE FOR A LACK OF
- THIS EXPLAINS FORMATION AS IT IS MORE INTEREST IN PURSUING A RELATIONSHIP THAN THOSE PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS WITH MONEY AND STATUS
SUGGESTED YOU WOULD NOT FORM A WHO WERE MATCHED EVENLY. THIS GOES AGAINST THE OBJECTS (RESOURCES). THIS MEANS THE MATCHING
RELATIONSHIP WITH SOMEONE OF A LOWER MATCHING HYPOTHESIS AS PPTS GRAVITATED TO HYPOTHESIS DOES NOT FAIRLY CONSIDER MEN AND
OR HIGHER SOCIAL DESIRABILITY INDIVIDUALS WHO WERE MORE ATTRACTIVE THAN THEM. WOMEN.
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MAINTENANCE ­ SOCIAL EXCHANGE
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THEORY
ClickAO1
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- RELATIONSHIPS ARE BASED ON COSTS AND REWARDS. SIMPSON ETHNOCENTRIC
Second
MAXIMUM REWARD level
AND MINIMAL COST ARE DESIRED ASKED PPTS TO RATE THE OPPOSITE SEX IN `ECONOMIC THEORIES' OF RELATIONSHIPS CAN BE SEEN
- REWARDS INCLUDE GOOD LOOKING PARTNER, MONEY, TERMS OF PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS. FOUND TO ONLY APPLY TO THE WESTERN CULTURES AND THOSE
LOYALTY. COSTS INCLUDE SPENDING MORE TIME WITH THOSE IN RELATIONSHIPS GAVE LOWER WITH HIGH SOCIAL MOBILITY. LESS MOBILE GROUPS
Third
PARTNER'S RELATIVES AND level
LESS WITH FRIENDS RATINGS. THIS GAVE THE EFFECT OF LOWERING AND NON-WESTERN CULTURES ARE MORE LIKELY TO
- REWARDS MINUS COSTS EQUALS RELATIONSHIP THE PERCEIVED PROFITS OF A NEW VALUE SECURITY OVER THE EXCHANGE OF COSTS AND
Fourth
OUTCOME. COMMITMENT IS level
DEPENDENT ON THIS RELATIONSHIP AND INSTEAD MAINTAIN THE REWARDS.
OUTCOME AND HOW `PROFITABLE' IT IS PROFITS WITH THE CURRENT RELATIONSHIP
- THIABAUT AND Fifth
KELLEY levelA FOUR STAGE MODEL,
PROPOSE GENDER DIFFERENCE - PRINS
ON HOW COSTS AND REWARDS ARE ESTABLISHED; RUSBULT AND MARTZ FOUND THAT THE CONSEQUENCES OF PERCEIVED
SAMPLING ­ THE COUPLE EXPLORE C/R IN A VARIETY OF SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY PRINCIPLES CAN INEQUALITY WERE DIFFERENT FOR DUTCH MEN AND
RELATIONSHIPS EXPLAIN WHY SOME WOMEN STAY IN ABUSIVE WOMEN. WOMEN WERE MORE LIKELY TO CHEAT IF
BARGAINING ­ THE COUPLE COST OUT THE RELATIONSHIP RELATIONSHIPS. WHEN INVESTMENT IS HIGH THEY EXPERIENCED GREATER COSTS IN THE
SOURCES OF C/R AND ALTERNATIVES LOW, EVEN AN ABUSIVE RELATIONSHIP THAN MEN. A GENDER DIFFERENCE IS
COMMITMENT ­ THE COUPLE SETTLE INTO A RELATIONSHIP, RELATIONSHIP CAN BE CONSIDERED NOT CONSIDERED IN THE SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY.
C/R EXCHANGE IS PREDICTABLE PROFITABLE, AND SO THE RELATIONSHIP WILL
INSTITUTIONALIZATION ­ INTERACTIONS ARE ESTABLISHED, BE MAINTAINED.
THE COUPLE HAVE `SETTLED DOWN'
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MAINTENANCE ­ INVESTMENT
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MODEL (RUSBULT)
AO1 AO2 AO3
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- FOCUSES ON THE EXTENT TO WHICH RELATIONSHIP LE AND AGNEW ETHNOCENTRIC BIAS
COMMITMENT ISSecond
DETERMINED level
BY INVESTMENT ACROSS 52 STUDIES, THEY FOUND SATISFACTION CROSS CULTURALLY, SATISFACTION, ALTERNATIVES
- IF SOMEONE INVESTS A GREAT DEAL, THEY WILL HAVE WITH, ALTERNATIVES TO, AND INVESTMENT IN A AND INVESTMENT DO NO ALWAYS INFLUENCE
A GREATER COMMITMENT LEVEL TO THE RELATIONSHIP WERE SIGNIFICANTLY RELATED TO COMMITMENT. THERE MAY BE CULTURAL OR
RELATIONSHIP Third level COMMITMENT RELIGIOUS PRESSURES TO MAINTAIN A RELATIONSHIP.
- INDIVIDUALS EXAMINE THEIR RELATIONSHIP IN TERMS THE BREAK DOWN OF A RELATIONSHIP MAY NOT BE
Fourth level
OF THREE FACTORS; SPRECHER SOCIALLY ACCEPTED BY CERTAIN CULTURES
SATISFACTION ­ SATISFACTION IS THE PRODUCT OF SUGGESTED INVESTMENT DOES NOT DIRECTLY
COST/REWARD Fifth level
DISTRIBUTION. IF THE OUTCOME OF APREDICT COMMITMENT. TESTED THE IDEA THAT PISTOLE
RELATIONSHIP IS ACCEPTABLE TO BOTH PARTIES, THE SATISFACTION, INVESTMENT AND SOCIAL SUPPORT FOUND THOSE WHO WERE SECURELY ATTACHED AS
RELATIONSHIP WILL BE DEEMED FAIR PREDICTED COMMITMENT, WHILE QUALITY OF CHILDREN EXPERIENCED GREATER SATISFACTION AND
ALTERNATIVES DECREASED COMMITMENT. FOUND COMMITMENT AND FEWER COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH
QUALITY OF ALTERNATIVES ­ IF POTENTIAL PARTNERS ARE THE ROLE OF INVESTMENT WAS NOT SIGNIFICANT. RELATIONSHIPS COMPARED TO THOSE WHO WERE
OF NO HIGHER QUALITY THAN THE CURRENT PARTNER, SATISFACTION AND ALTERNATIVES WERE MORE ANXIOUS OR AVOIDANT ATTACHMENT STYLES.
THE INDIVIDUAL WILL CONTINUE TO INVEST IMPORTANT IN DETERMINING COMMITMENT. CONCLUDED THAT SECURE ATTACHMENT IS
ASSOCIATED WITH GREATEST COMMITMENT, RATHER
INVESTMENT ­ IF THE INDIVIDUAL HAS INVESTED HEAVILY, THAN THE EXCHANGE OF COSTS AND REWARDS.
THEY WILL PUT MORE EFFORT INTO ITS MAINTENANCE
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BREAKDOWN ­ ROLLIE AND DUCK
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MODEL
AO1 AO2 AO3
Click to edit Master text styles
- FOCUSES ON THE PROCESSES THAT CHARACTERISE RELATIONSHIP AKERT ETHNOCENTRIC BIAS
BREAKDOWN, RATHER THAN SET STAGES FOUND THE ROLE PLAYED IN THE CONCLUSION RESEARCH COMPLETED ON BREAKDOWN IS
-
Second level
BREAKDOWN: ONE PARTY BECOMES INCREASINGLY DISSATISFIED OF THE RELATIONSHIP INDICATED THE IMPACT PREDOMINANTLY CARRIED OUT ON WHITE,
WITH THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE DISSOLUTION. THOSE WHO DID NOT MIDDLE CLASS INDIVIDUALS. IT CAN BE ARGUED
- Third level
INTRAPSYCHIC PROCESSES: THE DISSATISFIED PARTNER BEGINS INITIATE THE BREAK DOWN TENDED TO BE THE IN CULTURES WHERE DIVORCE IS FROWNED
TO VIEW THE PARTNER IN NEGATIVE TERMS. SOCIAL MOST MISERABLE. THE MODEL ASSUMES UPON, THE SOCIAL PROCESSES PHASE WILL BE
WITHDRAWAL ISFourth
SEEN level INDIVIDUALS MOVE ON WITH NO RESIDUAL RECEIVED DIFFERENTLY.
- DYADIC PROCESSES: THE DISSATISFIED PARTNER AIRS HIS/HER FEELINGS.
PROBLEMS TO Fifth RELATIONSHIP
PARTNER. level CAN BE SAVED HETEROSEXUAL BIAS
THROUGH COMMUNICATION, BUT CAN ALSO HIGHLIGHT THE RESURRECTION PHASE THIS MODEL HAS BEEN DEVELOPED FROM
WEAKNESSES THIS PHASE REPRESENTS A POSITIVE VIEW OF HETEROSEXUAL EXPERIENCES. THIS MEANS THAT
- SOCIAL PROCESSES: INTENTION TO BREAK UP IS MADE PUBLIC. BREAKDOWN, HIGHLIGHTING POTENTIAL FOR IT DOES NOT REPRESENT HOMOSEXUAL
ADVICE IS SOUGHT FROM FAMILY AND FRIENDS, WHICH CAN PERSONAL GROWTH. THIS MAKES THE MODEL BREAKDOWN, OR A DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN
MEND OR DELAY RELATIONSHIP CONCLUSION MORE REALISTIC THAN TRADITIONAL MODELS, MARRIED, COHABITING AND DATING COUPLES.
- GRAVE DRESSING PROCESSES: BREAK DOWN HAS OCCURRED. AN WHICH PRIMARILY FOCUS ON DISTRESS GIVEN THE DIFFERENCES, IT IS UNLIKELY THE
OFFICIAL ACCOUNT OF EVENTS IS CREATED. ACCOUNTS WILL PROCESSES WILL BE EXPERIENCED IN THE SAME
DIFFER TO PORTRAY THE RELEVANT INDIVIDUAL IN A POSITIVE MANNER.
LIGHT.
- RESURRECTION PROCESSES: INDIVIDUALS MOVE ON, THINK
ABOUT NEW RELATIONSHIPS AND WHAT THEY WANT TO GAIN
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