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The melting pot…read more

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Minority representation
· End of the civil war brought emancipation for the slaves.
· Immigration in the 19th and 20th centuries brought a wave of
new settlers.
· 1990's migrant population was growing at 13 times the rate of
the non-hispanic white population.
· 2000 census = Hispanics = larger proportion of population than
African Americans.
· How do you move from a society that was half slave half free to
one in which the interests of minorities are protected and
represented?…read more

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Civil rights movement
· 1950's segregation was widespread in South.
· Separate but equal (Plessey VS Ferguson - 1896).
· World War Two ­ Raise the consciousness of black Americans.
· Montgomery bus boycott ­ 1955
· Brown VS Board of education Topeka ­ 1954
· Separate but equal ruled unconstitutional
· Little rock 9 ­ 1957
· Presidential authority (eventually) asserted in favour of Civil Rights ­ sent in
troops.
· 1964 and 1965 Civil Rights acts
· Made it the state's job to make it easy to vote.…read more

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Developments in minority
representation
· Residential segregation ­ 1930's depression blacks
moved to big cities seeking work.
· Inner city = black
· Suburbs = white.
· Supreme court and Congress plunge into CR.
· Argument between equality of opportunity and equality of
results.
· From middle of 20th century just giving people rights wasn't enough,
had to work towards equality of results.
· The only way to overcome racial disadvantage is to introduce racial
advantage.…read more

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Advantage to racial minorities
· Busing
· Movement of school children between homogeneous
neighbourhoods ­ black inner city and white suburbs ­ to create
racially mixed schools.
· Quotas
· Set-aside system to benefit previously disadvantaged minorities in
areas of education and employment.
· Declared unconstitutional by SC in 80's and 90's.
· Affirmative action
· Giving previously disadvantaged minorities a head start in higher
education and employment.
· Positive discrimination.…read more

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Comments

Old Sir

Useful for its outline of issues related to the Affirmative Action programme. However, many students will wish to augment this work with more detailed research into related issues such as voter registration and participation in general.

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