A2 Government and Politics - Nationalism Part One

Revision cards for Nationalism

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Give three ways that the Nation can be defined.

C

P

P

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1. Cultural - Common values, traditions, language, religion and history within the same geographical area. However, many nations enjoy several cultures whilst other cultures have been divided amongst seperate nations. It may in a few cases also refer to a kind of civilisation, which implies the special qualities a people may have.

2. Political (Civil Allegiance) - Political definitions are based on civic identity or the acceptance of citizenship. Citizens recognise themselves as members of a state with reciprocal rights and responsibilities. It is a rational form of identity based on the collective benefit of being part of a nation rather than any cultural distinctiveness. Subjective criteria - defined by their members, however some recognised nations dont have a political state.

3. Psychological - Patriotism is a psychological attachment to ones country. Nationalism has a doctrinal character (it has a clear set of ideological ideas) and emodies the belief that the nation is in some way the central political organisation. Patriotism provides the affective basis for that belief, and thus underpins all forms of nationalism. However, not all who identify with a nation see it as a means through which demands are exposed.

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Give two different Nationalistic movement examples

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Welsh Nationalism - Language embodies distinctive attitudes, values, forms of expression which produce familiarity and belonging. Language is often preserved to maintain a sense of national identity. The Welsh (although not the whole nation) see their cultural identity in terms of their language and the culture it carries with it. However, many nations are multi-lingual such as Switzerland, Russia, India etc.

Scottish Nationalism - Nationalism as a political ideology in Scotland has often supported greater local autonomy for Scotland as part of the United Kingdom, or the creation of Scotland as a sovereign state. In this context Scottish Nationalism may refer to Scottish independence, the advocacy of Scotland becoming a sovereign state. The Scottish National Party - the main political party which supports Scottish Independence and Scottish home rule.

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Why can the nation be defined as vague?

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Origins - The exact origins of the nation is a matter of controversy. Primordialists believe 'nations' can be found in early civilisations. Modernists believe nationalism and nations are mostly a product of the modern era. Before 18th century countries were thought of as realms and Kingdoms, inhabitants were subjects not citizens, loyal to the King not the nation or state.

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Summarise the four ways a Nation can defined + two

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1. Vague - The exact origin of the nation is controversial and argued over by pri-mordialists and modernists.

2. Cultural - Common values, traditions, language, religion and history within the same geographical area.

3. Political (Civic Allegiance) - Political definitions are based on civic identity or the acceptance of citizenship.

4. Psychological - Patriotism is a psychological attachment to ones country.

Example One: Welsh Nationalism - Language embodies the distinctive attitudes, values and forms of expression which produce familiarity and belonging amongst the Welsh.

Example Two: Scottish Nationalism - Nationalism as a political ideology in Scotland has often supported greater local autonomy for Scotland as part of the United Kingdom, or the creation of Scotland as a sovereign state.

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Give three ways that the State can be defined.

P.S

T.B

P.L

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Political Sovereignty - The state is a political reality whilst the nation is a political, cultural or psychological idea or feeling. Nations can be defined politically - national consciousness is often manifest in a desire to achieve or maintain statehood or self-determination.

Territorial Boundaries - Most states are primarily formed around particular nations and the aim of nationalism is usually to create a Nation-State. Nationalist movements usually fight for self determination.

Public legitimacy - The state is usually regarded as publicly legitimate and therefore binding on members of society because its decisions are claimed to be made in the public interest.

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Give three reasons why Nations and States are ofte

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1. Nations can be defined politically - National Consciousness is often manifest in a desire to achieve or maintain statehood or self determination. Politically a nation is a group of people who regard themselves as a natural political community and normally expressed in the desire to maintain statehood.

2. States and Nations often overlap to form Nation-States - A Nation-State can be defined as a sovereign political association within which civic identity and nationality overlap, one nation within a single state. Nations are complex phenomena that are determined by cultural, political and psychological factors. States claim to make decisions in the public interest and exercise authority through permanent institutions.

3. The aim of Nationalism is usually to create a Nation-State - After Napoleon Bonaparte Imperial powers such as the Ottomans and the Austro-Hungarian Empire denied the right of statehood to many nations. It was only after Versailles that the Nation-State was put forward as a fundamental right of all peoples. President Wilson persuaded the victorious allies to declare that 11 Nations had the right to statehood. However, Nationalist overseas colonies would not be resolved until post World War Two.

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Give three examples of why the terms Nation and St

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1. Nations can be defined politically - Scottish Nation - A movement supporting greater local autonomy for Scotland as part of the United Kingdom.

2. States and Nations often overlap to form Nation States - France - It was declared after the Civil War that the French people were collectively free and had established the right to self determination; the right to form their own government and to determine how they were governed.

3. The aim of Nationalism is usually to create a Nation-State - Palestinian Nationalism - One of many National movements that arose in the mid nineteenth to early twentieth century that claims the right of sovereignty and self determination on the land they regard as their historic national home.

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Give four differences between the Nation and the S

N.A.S.C.J.O.N

N.S

S.B

S.R

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1. Not all states contain just one nation - The UK is a multi-national state in that it is a single sovereign state with a unitary government, but it contains within it a system of several different countries and nationalities. None of these constituent countries enjoy sovereignty, of course many other countries enjoy strong regional countries within them, but these are not individual countries.

2. A number of nations do not have a state - Many of the problems that the nation state must deal with have become supra-national in character. Markets are increasingly international, crime operates across countries, environmental problems do not recognise national boundaries and individual states find it difficult to defend against terrorism.

3. Some nations cross state boundaries - Movements that have sought to unite ethnic groupings such as Pan-Arabism (aiming to unite all Arab peoples) and pan-slavism (aiming to unite the slavic race) may have proposed racial exclusivity and unity, but included no special sense of superiority.

4. Some nationalisms are content with a measure of self rule - Cultural forms of nationalism have arisen seeking a degree of autonomous control over cultural institutions but not general independence. The Welsh Assembly that was established in 1998 has some control over education, the arts, sports and the Welsh Language. This has little in common with Volkism in Nazi Germany.

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Give four examples of the differences between the

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Not all states contain just one nation - UK - Scottish nationalism advocates political independence. Welsh Nationalism value cultural independence and Irish favour complete independence.

A number of nations do not have a state - Palestinians - After Israel was formed Palestine claimed the right of sovereignty and self determination on the land they regarded as home.

Some nations cross state boundaries - Jewish Nation - The State of Israel is defined as a 'Jewish and a democratic state' by Israeli constitutional law. Jerusalem is the country's capital, although not internationally recognised as such.

Some nationalisms are content with a measure of self rule - Welsh Nationalism - Unlike the Scots the Welsh have no tradition of seperateness and few distinctive political institutions. Most see themselves as a region of the UK, but not distinct enough for independence.

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Give two reasons why Nationalists see the nation-s

N.P

F. AND . P.W

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1. Natural Process - Although it is highly subjective, a nationalist movement is deemed to be progressive if it is not seeking to defend or protect a particular way of life or political organisation, but is seeking to create a new political organisation which is deemed to be an improvement on the current situation. This is supported usually by a general view of human progress, based upon the belief that human history is marked by the advancement of knowledge and achievement of higher levels of civilisation.

2. Ensures and maintains freedom and the popular will - The Nation-State embodies the goal of political freedom, the principle of national self determination. Democracy and self government therefore only operate within the nation state. A state based on the maintenance of civil rights would give people the freedom to establish their own government and to determine for themselves the manner in which they are governed.

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Give two other reasons why nationalists see the na

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1. Ensures homogeneity and unites political and cultural national identity - Nation-states are uniquely stable and cohesive, all other political forms are considered to be defective and impermanent. This is because nation-states are united by a combination of political allegiances and a high levels of cultural cohesion. All members of such a state therefore belong to it in a civic and cultural sense. This is argued by Conservative nationalists who are not concerned with the principle of self determination but in patriotism as a tool of social cohesion. They feel threatened by pluralism and diversity which threatens the cohesion of society.

2. More peaceful than empires - Nation-states are believed to be inherently peaceful, whereas multinational empires are restless and expansionist. Nation-states tend to recognise the sovereign independence of neighbouring states as they do not want to sacrifice their civic and cultural cohesion through expansionism and conquest. This was emphasised by Liberal nationalists.

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Provide a definition of Race/Ethnicity

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Race is concerned with socially recognisable physical characteristics such as skin pigment and facial features which are based on genetic makeup. Races in types such as Caucasian, African, Caribbean, Asian, and oriental are not specific to a geographical area by origin. They conclude that race is a social, cultural and political concept based largely on superficial appearances. This is why some prefer to use the term ethnicity which denotes cultural rather than biological characteristics.

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Give three reasons why the terms Nation and Race h

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Historical Link - They have both been strongly linked historically, nations have attempted at some point historically to claim some form of racial link. The idea that common blood ties make up a nation can give rise to a number of problems. It can promote a sense of exclusivity so that those who cannot demonstrate a blood connection may be excluded from society. Sometimes has led to ideas of superiority.

Nations can be defined culturally/ethnically - Nationalists see the state as consisting of a unique group of people that form a homogeneous - racial characteristics are a useful and obvious way of identifying them. In general terms however, a race is not necessarily a nation, furthermore nations can contain more than one racial grouping as is the case with the Chinese and the English.

Extreme forms of nationalism are racialist - Racialism on a political level sees other non-national groups as outsiders, and not legitimate members of the state. It has led to quasi-scientific racialist beliefs that the nation can only retain its strength and superiority if it can maintain racial superiority.

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Give three examples of why the terms 'nation' and

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1. Historical Link - Islamic Nation - The Nation of Islam set out to improve the spiritual, mental, social and economic condition of Black men and women in Africa. Most of the members are in the USA.

2. Nations can be defined culturally/ethnically - Chinese Nation - Characteristics which provide a superficial identification.

3. Extreme forms of Nationalism are Racialist - Nazi/ Aryanism - Hitler based his nationalism upon a racially defined 'German or Aryan people' and was not limited by boundaries of the state.

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Give three differences between the terms 'nation'

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1. Many states are multi-racial or ethnic - Multicultural public policies whether applied in education, health care, housing or other aspects of social policy are characterised by formal recognition of the distinctive needs of particular cultural groups and a desire to ensure equality of opportunity between and amongst them.

2. Races are poorly and subjectively defined - Historically dubious and racial purity is virtually impossible to ascertain. Many nations consider themselves to be a race and this can certainly be said of the Japaneese, Jews, Thai's and Malaisans. In general terms race is not a nation, furthermore nations can contain more than one ethnic grouping.

3. Many forms of nationalism defined are politically based on Civic Identity not racial or cultural characteristics - There are many forms of Liberal nationalism. The Scots have sought both self determination and a superior democracy. They have wanted control of their own resources and their own government. The devolution settlement of 1998 went some way to satisfying their desire for political autonomy, but in truth were disappointing.

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Give three examples of the differences between nat

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1. Many states are multi-racial or ethnic - United States - Hyphenated nationality through which people view themselves as African-American, Polish-American, German-American and so forth.

2. Races are poorly and subjectively defined - Chinese Nation - Actually made up of a variety of different racial groups.

3. Many forms of nationalism defined politically based on Civic Identity not racial or cultural characteristics - Scottish Nationalism - The principle aim of Scottish Nationalism is political independence, either in the fullest sense of the word or partially through a federal system.

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Give the first core theory of nationalism with a p

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1. Nation as a meaningful social (organic) community - Although nationalists may differ on the defining features of the nation, they are unified by ther belief that nations are organic communities. Humankind in other words, is divided into a collection of nations each possessing a distinctive character and separate identity. This is why a higher loyalty attaches to the nation.

Theorist: Hegel/Herder - Hegel saw the organic society as an expression of universal will. Herder saw the world as being divided into national cultures.

Counter Argument - The fact that nations are formed through a combination of objective and subjective factors has given rise to rival concepts of the nation. Although all nationalists agree that nations are a mix of cultural and psycho-political factors, their is debate about their balance.

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Give a second core theory of Nationalism + a theor

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1. The right to self determination (to rule themselves) - Self determination has become a general principle of democratic politics. It is essentially based on the view that people have a fundamental right to determine how they are governed, THe concept of self determination asks what is a people? The answer offered is that the nation is the most natural unit.

Theorist: JJ Rousseau - Rousseau stressed popular sovereignty in 'the General Will', the seed from which nationalist doctrines spring Government based on will.

Counter Argument - Although achieving independence from other states is a core value of nationalists there are some exceptions to this, three examples of which can be found in the UK. For example the Welsh, the Unionists etc who seek to defend their culture.

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Why is nationalism considered a cross cutting ideo

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Nationalism can represent many different ideological traditions from Liberalism to fascism. They all define the nation in different ways. Different nationalist movements within a country may exhibit different types of nationalism. Nationalism cannot easily be pigeon holed, there will always be elements of progression and regression. However, all are to some extent inclusive.

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What is Liberal nationalism based on + theorist an

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1. Based on Liberal ideas of individualism and freedom - Liberal nationalism is the oldest form of nationalism and dates back to the French Revolution of 1789. It is based on the concepts of 'popular sovereignty' and the 'general will'. In particular it was opposed to the autocratic and feudal aristocratic empires that had dominated European politicism in the Middle Ages.

Theorist: John Locke - Natural Rights Theory - In a natural state all people were equal and independent, and everyone had a natural right to defend 'life, health, liberty or possessions'.

Aim: National pluralism - a world of nation states - Nationalism is viewed as a liberating and progressive force that opposes all forms of foreign domination and oppression whether by multi-national empires or colonial powers. Stands for the idea of self government. Thus independent nation-states would respect the rights of others.

Example: The last of Wilson's fourteen points stated that a 'general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for purpose of affording mutual guarantees'

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Give the three main features of Liberal Nationalis

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1. Opposition to Empire - They opposed the Austro-Hungarian, Russian and Ottoman Empires, seeking the establishment of nation-states such as Germany and Italy in their place and believing that national self determination would usher in a period of international peace. This can be linked to the view that nationalism is a liberating and progressive force.

2. Popular Sovereignty - The Peoples Will - Nations are individual sovereign entities and thus entitled to maximum liberty. The nation was a means for ensuring popular sovereignty expressing the 'general will' of individuals and should therefore be as free as possible to itself. JS Mill: The boundaries of government should coincide in the main with those of nationality.

3. Self determination- The nation-state is a sovereign political association within which citizenship and nationality overlap. The nation state embodies the goal of political freedom giving expression to the principle of national self determination, democracy and self government an therefore only operate within a nation-state.

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Give three examples of the main features of Libera

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1. Opposition to Empire - Mazzini - His ideas were perhaps best expressed by Giuseppe Mazzini an Italian nationalist who proposed nationalism be based on Liberal Republicanism and self government.

2. Popular Sovereignty and the Peoples Will - Jean Jacque Rousseau - The General Will is a concept used during the French Revolution to refer to the right of people to self govern, however has been regarded as paradoxical as it subjects people to the 'tyranny of the majority'.

3. Self determination - Woodrow Wilson 14 Points - Wilson's ideas were clearly based on the Liberal nationalist belief in universal national self determination. It was concerned with guaranteeing the rights of small nations.

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What is the basis of Conservative Nationalism + th

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1. Based on Conservative beliefs of human nature, tradition and need for social stability - In the 19th century Conservaties became increasingly sympathetic towards nationalism, seeing it as a way of maintaining social order and tradition. The principle goal of Conservative nationalism was to maintain national unity by fostering patriotism. Conservatives are not concerned with the principle of national self determination but in patriotism as a form or tool of social cohesion.

Theorist: Thomas Hobbes

Hobbes account of human nature as self interested cooperation has proved to be an enduring theory in the field of philosophical anthropology. Regarded as one of the founders of materialism.

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Give two features of Conservative Nationalism

ORG

U, A, SS

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1. Organicism - The nation is an organic community more than the sum of individual arts. Humankind in other words is divided into nations each possessing a distinctive character and separate identity. This is why a higher loyalty attaches to the nation. Hegel argued that the organic society is an expression of universal will. Eg: Volkgeist - people bound by a sense of being one.

2. Maintaining unity, authority and social stability - Patriotism and nationalism give a sense of identity and beloning and helps maintain authority and social order. It prevents social conflict by binding irrational dependent individuals together with a shared set of values, whilst transcending the natural rights of the individual.

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Give a further two key features of Conservative Na

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1. Maintaining Homogeneity in society - Conservatives feel threatened by pluralism and diversity as it threatens the cohesion of societty and risks social conflict. Strong nationalism preserves a common culture which will preserve the social order and unify society. Traditional institutions like the monarchy are symbols of national pride commemorating the past.

2. Defensive (Protecting the nation from a perceived threat) - Hold a belief in a special nationality which is being eroded by another. They clearly have a strong belief in self determination and a greater belief in individual sovereignty over political correctness. This has been applied to the issue of Europe, where Conservatives argue British Sovereignty is being eroded.

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Give four examples of the main features of Conserv

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1. Organicism (Nation is an organic spiritual community) - Herder - The world is divided into national cultures, each one of which formed an organic and spiritual whole.

2. Maintaining unity, authority and social stability - Disraeli - Appealed to the nationalist instincts of the people by appealing to the idea of one nation to prevent social disorder.

3. Maintaining homogeneity in society - Enoch Powell - Antimulticulturalism within Conservatism in the UK. Enoch Powell's River of Blood speech highlighting dangers of immigration.

4. Defensive (Protecting the nation from a perceived threat) - UKIP argues that the EU erodes our independence and dictates policies the British would never vote for in an election.

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Explain what Chauvanistic Nationalism is based on

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Based on view of Integral Nationalism - A term coined by the French Right Wing Nationalist Charles Maurras referring to a feeling of intense, even hysterical nationalist enthusiasm in which the nation is all important and the individual unimportant. People lose identity.

Theorist: Charles Maurras - 19th Century Imperialism, national prestige linked to the possession of an empire, each victory appreciated by the public.

Chauvanism - A belief that some nations possess characteristics or qualities that make them superior than others and they therefore should be dominant. This is often expressed as racialism, a belief that racial divisions are important either because races should live apart, or because some races are superior to others possessing different qualities.

Example: British Empire - Britain took part in 'the scramble for Africa and Asia' alongside France, Germany, Belgium and Holland.

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Give the four main features of chauvinistic nation

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1. Expansionism - Extreme nationalism often results in militarism and expansionism. Militarism - the achievement of ends by military means or even the extension of military ideas, values and practices to the whole of society.

2. Racialism - Often fuelled by negative integration, the portrayal of another nation or race as a threat or enemy. In the face of the enemy the nation pulls together and the sense of the identity and importance is increased. Breeds a clear distinction between them and us.

3. Nation Glory Rebirth - Individuals and groups lose their identity and submerge totally within the all powerful nation. The individual as a separate, rational being is swept away on a tide of patriotic emotion, expressed in the desire for aggression, expansion and war. Individuals are expected to be loyal.

4. Security - This form of nationalism appeals to the isolated, powerless, and emotionally insecure, particularly at times of crisis. It offers security, self respect and pride to people who would otherwise not feel these emotions.

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Give four examples of the main features of Chauvan

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1. Expansionism - Nazi theory of Lebensraum - Hitler based his nationalism on racially defined 'German' or 'Aryan' space.

2. Racialism - Nazi Racial Theory - The Nazi's applied Social Darwinism to the intermingling of races. Their line of reasoning was that interracial breeding caused degeneration.

3. Nation glory/ rebirth - Mussolini's New Roman Empire - The Italian Colonial Empire was created after the Kingdom of Italy joined other European powers.

4. Security - Nazi-Jewish threat - The Nazi's adopted te pan German expansionism justifying it on the basis of biological superiority of the Germanic or Aryan race.

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Provide the basis for Anti-Colonial Nationalism an

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Based often on Socialist / Marxist views of class struggle, equality and fraternity - The emergence of Neo-Colonialism arose as a reaction to the dominance of Western culture and ideas, particularly the dominance of US culture and economic power in most of the developing world. US Imperialism has not usually involved overt political colonisation but its economic and cultural power has incredible influence.

Theorist: Lenin - Imperialism - the highest stage of capitalism - Imperialism is an economic phenomenon, a quest for capitalist countries to pursue profit, cheap labour and raw materials. The class struggle became colonial.

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Comments

Olivia Reynoldson

Thanks x

bob marley

perfect way of revising. thanks for the slides. very well done and good luck to all alevel politics student

Thomas Dalton

Thanks x

Thomas Dalton

Hey Jamie, revision buddy!

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