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1. Key Concepts
a) Civil rights. Civil rights are guaranteed in the Constitution (which contains a Bill of Rights, the 1st 10 amendments),
subsequent amendments and Acts of Congress. But these civil rights were not granted equally to all groups, e.g. voting,
standing for office,…

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a) Discrimination. This is difficult to prove e.g. in Washington v Davis (1976) the SC ruled that to prove a state guilty of
discrimination, one must prove that an intent to discriminate motivated the states' action. Two blacks challenged the police
department's requirement that all recruits pass a verbal ability…

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JapaneseAmericans in World War II were only finally resolved by formal government apologies and financial
compensation, and argue that similar steps need to be taken in relation to AfricanAmericans before the past can be
laid to rest and racial harmony achieved. Supporters of this view argue that Affirmative Action has…

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8. Why Does the Issue of Civil Rights Continue to Provoke Political Controversy?
a) Civil rights are guaranteed in the Constitution, subsequent amendments and Acts of Congress.
b) Civil rights should be granted equally to all groups. Examples ­ voting, standing for office, protection from discrimination.
Civil Rights Acts of…

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f) Critics of racial profiling argue that the policy is the most visible form of continued racial discrimination which subtly
pervades American society, and provides concrete evidence that affirmative action continues to be required to provide
access to opportunities that would otherwise by denied.

12. Is racism the main cause…

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this view, Affirmative Action has been little more than a mild painkiller to treat a serious illness just enough to take the
patient's mind off the pain and make everyone feel that something is being done. AfricanAmericans should receive an
apology and financial compensation as has been given to other…

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If AA disappears then the US might lose its Affirmative action may encourage its beneficiaries to be lazy. Why
momentum towards social justice and the work hard if affirmative action programmes virtually guarantee
gains in civil rights of the last 40 years could progress?
be lost (e.g., racial profiling is…

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African Americans have been demanding compensation for slavery since the end of the American Civil War. Immediately after
the abolition of slavery, the demand was for 40 acres and a mule to ensure they would not be dependent on their former
slaveowners. Then, between 1890 and 1917, there was a…

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l) Immigration has now become a States Rights issue, i.e., can states pass their own antiimmigration laws (e.g., Arizona
SB1070). States passed 206 laws relating to immigration in 2008. Obama is opposed to this piecemeal state by state
m) 2012 Obama announced the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals programme…


Old Sir


A very useful and comprehensive set of notes. Students are likely to find the examples and case studies to which these notes refer especially useful for constructing discussions to address assessment objective 2, (evaluation and analysis) when researched in detail.

Courtenay Shippey


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