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Cultural Variations in Relationships
WJEC POTIENTIAL question: Discuss cultural variations in relationships
Differences in Weston and Non Weston Societies
MOGHADDAM ET AL (1993) contended that those in Weston Cultures marriages tend to be
individualistic voluntary and temporary. Those in non-Weston cultures tend to have marriages that
are collectivist, obligatory and permanent.
Indiviualism/Collectivism: Individualistic cultures are cultures that aim to please the individual. And
collectivist cultures are those that aim to please a close knit community the family.
Voluntary/Non-Voluntary: Due to proximity there is less choice of a partner for those in
non-voluntary societies (non-Weston). Whereas those that have mobile ability have more an open
Temporary/Obligatory: Relationships based on love don't always tend to meet expectation that the
media produce and can terminate. Those based to bring families together however tend to be more
stable and permanent.
HOFESTED (1994) AND GODWIN (1999) Divided cultural differences as so...
1. Individualism / Collectivism
This looks at the aims of the people whether they aim to please themselves (individualistic) or aim to
please those of a close knit group (collectivist).
Economic wealth, those that are richer have the opportunity to peruse personal
economic secrutity whereas those that are poor have to find a wider pool of
resources. Also those that are richer have the opportunity to move away from
Religion, in some cultures like China the idea of Confucianism is played on.
Whereas religions like Christianity plays more on the individual relationship
between you and God.
Proximity, both individualism and collectivists tend to live in clusters globally.
This could be down to climate says HOFSETDE (1984). He argues that in colder
climates survival is down to individuals.
The acceptance of power in an organisation can make a difference, how the power is distributed. In
cultures where they values power-distance, have formal positions that are valued and respected to
reflect status differences (Collectivists). Those in low-power-distance believe power is only
needed when justified (Individualists).
3. Masculinity and Femininity
HOFESTEDE (1983) argues that masculine cultures are those that care for achievement, assertive
and material success. Those that are feminine cultures care for relationships, modesty, and caring
for those that are weak.
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4. Uncertainty avoidance
HOFESTEDE (1994) in cultures where there are risk factors they have a high uncertain avoidance,
these cultures tend to plan, predict and have a consensus. Those with low risk factors (low uncertain
avoidance) tend to be more curious to voyages of the unknown.…read more