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Treatment and Punishment
WJEC POTIENTIAL question:
The first task is for the offender to realise he has done wrong; they then go through either two
programmes to correct their cognitive skills.
Enhanced Thinking Skills
Here they use a process to get individual to stop before they act and think about what they are
doing. To consider all the factors before they act a criminal act.
Reasoning and Rehabilitation
This is based on the idea that offenders are under socialised, they try to re-socialise sub skills. Skills
such as problem solving, talking, emotions, and a lot more. It's an attempt to increase their pride and
Changes thinking patterns having a lasting effect on recidivism,
More effective than Behavioural therapy
Therapy was based on those for male offenders not women. Cann et al showed that it had
little or no effect on women.
Based on a reward therapy, that the offender is rewarded with a token to exchange for goods like a
cigarette or ability to watch TV. However any undesirable behaviour is punished with isolation to
reduce undesirable behaviour. This must be consistent over a long time otherwise may cease to have
Officers then may try to wine offenders off rewards. As they give the rewards they are also praised.
It is hoped that eventually the praise for the good behaviour is enough. As they won't always be
rewarded when released, for the desired behaviour to continue they can't expect the rewards
Officers competency, the officer has to be able to know how to use the tokens effectively
A meta-analysis suggested that cognitive analysis was a lot more effective than Behavioural.
As behaviour helps to solve the cause.
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A zero tolerance police suggests stopping offenders before they enter a downward spiral and think
there offences to be a social norm. By stopping minor crimes it stops the escalation of the crimes.
(Kelling and Wilson 1982)
Supportive evidence, William Bratton dropped murders by 50% and crime overall by 37% by
tackling minor crimes like public drinking