Advantages of scientific methods py3 wjec

5 Advantages of scientific methods py3 wjec

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Introduction...

  • Introduction... 

Scientific method is used extensively by some approaches in psychology and is characterised by its control, objectivity and replicability.


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1st Advantage...

Levels of Control... 

This is an advantage because... less likely confounding/ extraneous variables will impact results! - Also due to high levels of control it is possible to establish cause and effect. 

For example... Banduras study of aggression - matched children for baseline aggression before inital study- was his first control! - He then treated them to the same standardised procedures expt IV (Which adult the saw behaving aggressively or not) - Frustrated them in the same way and then observed the behaviour in an objective manner where the DV of aggression had been operationalised. Casual relationship can be made (cause and effect) Procedure high in reliability as the procedure could be replicated to test the findings by other researchers. 

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2nd Advantage...

Objective...

This is an advantage because... without objectivity- no way of being certain that the data is valid - By operationalising the Variables  - researchers are not relying on opinion or interpretation - increasing reliability of the findings - other researchers can replicate the procedure and measure the variables in the same way.

For example... Gardener & Gardener - Washoe - Language was operationalised as signs that were used spontaneously in the correct context on 3 seperate occassions, seen by 3 different researchers (inter-rater reliability) + used for 15 days in a row - This meant that it was not the different researchers' opinions as to whether Washoe had correctly signed and shown language.

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3rd Advantage...

Quantitative Data...

This is an advantage because... quantitative data can be analysed statistically and that researchers can be confident that a significant results means that the findings are not chance.

For example...Buss' study- Data collected from 10,047 pts.The method not very scientific, the data anaylis meant Buss could calculate averages if the pts' answers as to which traits they prefer in a partner. Stats allowed Buss to compare male and female scores as well as examining cultural differences between countries. This would have been extremely difficult using qualitative methods.

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4th Advantage...

Allows us to validate or falsify a theory... 

This is an advantage because - Validation allows us to demostrate that a theory is correct, whilst falsification allows us to prove that a theory is incorrect so the theory can be discounted or amended according to the new evidence,=. 

For example... Levinger & Clark investigated Freuds theory of repression. Freuds theory criticised due to his use of case studies and lack of scientific evidence. Theory states that anxiety provoking memories may be locked away in the unconscious of an individual in order to protect that individual from further harm. L&C found that emotionally neutral words could be recalled by pts than emotionally arosing words, the theory of repression was validated. Anxiety provoking info can be repressed. 

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5th Advantage...

Replicable...

This is an advantage because... By replicating a study we can establish whether similar results are obtained again, and if the results are similar it shows the findings to be reliable.

For example... Milgram's study into obedience has been replicated across different cultures and genders with similar findings-- Possible to generalise findings to the real world and a wider population and shows good reliability.

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Conclusion..

Inconclusion... 

Whilst some qualities of human nature may be lost using scientific method, for many areas of psychology it is the best way of collecting and analysing data from large groups of groups of people to study measureable objective variables.

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Comments

yahyaa

Very helpful, Thanks :)

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