PY2 Case Studies Aims and Context

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Aims Context
Asch Asch was interested in how social influence effects Jenness - Jenness put beans in a jar and asked participants t
thoughts and feelings . how many beans were in there. He then put participan
Asch wanted to see the effects of individuals in groups and asked them to complete the task again.
unambiguous situations, if the participants would Jenness found that the participants conformed to a group
conform under pressure when faced with an middle number)
obvious incorrect answer. Sherif looked at the auto kinetic effect, he put participan
Conformity is when someone chooses a course of dark room and asked participants to guess how far the li
action that other members see as acceptable moved. The participants then were put in groups and a
discuss. Again the participants conformed to a group norm
Asch noticed that in both studies the tests were ambiguou
was no blatantly right answer, and he wanted to know if
would still conform if there was an obvious answer .
Milgram Milgram wanted to test the `Germans are different' Milgram is Jewish
theory He wanted to see if it conformity was part of He was interested by the Nazi's defence at the Nuremburg
Germanic behaviour or if anybody has the capacity after the holocaust
to conform Nazi's claimed that they were `simply following orders'
The theory that `Germans are different' was suggested
Rahe et al To conduct a prospective study using a normal SELYE in 1930's suggested a link between stress + illness w
population work on rats
To investigate the relationship between stress and HAWKINS worked in a TB sanatorium and observed poor p
illness suffered worse, he suggested this was due to emotional st
making them more vulnerable
RAHE made the schedule of recent experience (SRE) and t
readjustment scale, these provided scores for stress that c
used to measure a person's stress levels
Bennett-Lev SELIGMAN offered no explanation about the SELIGMAN proposed the concept of biological preparedne
y and mechanism of preparedness, they wanted to find is an inherited disposition to fear certain animals
Marteau the underlying mechanism 3-observations were made:
They also want to see what stimulus cause people 1) Non-random distribution of fears (snakes and spiders e
to be `biologically prepared. 2)Not matched by traumatic experiences
The aim was to investigate how perceived 3)Fears peak in early life (childhood)
characteristics effect fear. MINEKA found wild reared monkeys showed fear to real,
and toy snakes whilst lab monkeys only showed a mild res
This suggest operant learning is responsible.
Gardener Aimed to investigate if they could teach a chimp to CHOMSKY said humans have the language acquisition de
and communicate using American sign language which allows us to acquire language, so theoretically anim
Gardener To raise a chimp in the same way that a human is should not be able to learn human language
HAYES AND HAYES worked with a chimp called VICKIbut
only teach it 4words in 6years.
PREMACK AND PREMACK taught a chimp called SARAH to
signs by using coloured shapes and chips that related to w
It was suggested that chimps have different vocal appara
therefore a vocal language is not appropriate for chimps
Loftus and Loftus and palmer aimed to investigate the accuracy Eyewitnesses in court swear to tell the truth, however the
Palmer of memory testimony may not be accurate even though the say they'
If leading questions effect the estimates of speed the truth.

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Eyewitness testimonies are the leading factor leading to fa
Leading questions can alter peoples memory's and effect
ability to estimate continuous data such as speed or time.
LOFTUS AND PALMER worked on the findings of BARTLETT
of the ghosts' he showed that we don't passively receive
information, we try to make sense of the information give
alter it in the process.…read more


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