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Attachment

Attachment ­ A strong reciprocal emotional bond between two people, with a desire to maintain
proximity. (Schaffer 1993)

Primary Caregiver ­ Usually the mother, but is the person who cares for the infant the majority of the
time. According to Bowlby's evolutionary theory this is the first and special…

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Type C
Cry more frequently & become very distressed when mother leaves; ambivalent towards her when
she returns.

Strengths & Weaknesses of the Strange Situations Study:

+High internal validity
+Reliable because you can repeat the study ­ lab
+Controls variables ­ lab

-Ethical issues
-Cultural Bias (America)
-Low external validity…

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Learning Theory ­ Classical and Operant Conditioning

Classical Conditioning

Pavlov (1927) Learning occurs through association. By pairing food with the sound of a bell, Pavlov
taught the dog to salivate on the sound of the bell.

The noise of the bell is the stimulus
US ­ Unconditioned Stimulus
UR ­…

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Against Operant Conditioning

Harlow (1959) did a study using monkey's it showed that feeding is not the main source.

The monkey was able to go too two un-real monkeys: one was soft the other was hard and made of
wire but it had a food source.

The monkey went to…

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Supporting evidence for Continuity

Hazan & Shaver (1987) Asked people to fill in a `love quiz' they found a relationship between
childhood relationships and future romantic relationships. Securely attached children tended to trust
others more and believed in lasting love, while insecurely avoidant children tended to be less
trusting and…

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In some cases young children are separated from their parents either long or short periods of time;
like at day care, have been in hospital, put into care because parents are unwilling or unable to look
after the child. Bowlby observed a number of children which are emotionally disturbed that…

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A longer-term effect of separation is separation anxiety the fear that separation will occur again in
the future.

-Increased aggressive behaviour and greater demands placed on the parent.
-Detachment: the child becomes self-sufficient and does not rely on the parent emotionally (eg.
Refusing to be cuddled.)
-Clinging behaviour: won't let…

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Although the children differed in their relationships at home, at school they were the same. They
made attachments with adults but not peer attachments. The study shows that privation at an early
age affects future relationships even when children receive subsequent emotional care.

-Not all children were following through the…

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Research shows not all children are permently damaged in privation ie. Rutter el al's study and the
Czech twins by Koluchova.

Turner & Lloyd argued privation alone can't explain psychological damage that there is multiple risk
factors, such as poor care following privation, early separations & parental issues.
These factors…

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Field ­ Found children who attended day care were more likely to show physical affection during
play.

Clarke-Stuart ­ Found 15 month old children who experienced high intensity childcare (30+) are just
as equally distressed as children who spend less hours at day care per week (-10). This shows the…

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