Psychology Unit 1- ATTACHMENTS- The Formation of A
Attachment: an emotional tie or bond between two people shown in their behaviour.
Attachment behaviours : Maccoby (1980)
- Seeking Proximity: Near to each other, spending time together (babies cry if caregiver too far away)
- Distress on Seperation: Distress when caregiver leaves. Feeling homesick when older.
- Joy on Reunion: Welcoming back attatchment figure, clinging & hugging even after short periods of seperation.
- General Orientation of behaviour towards the other person: Baby and caregiver direct their attention to each other, engage in activities and interact with each other.
- Divided geese eggs- one group stayed with mother, one group incubated - first moving object was him after hatching - IMPRINTING - Goslings became attached to him.
- Both groups then put back in a container and released - geese seeked their own 'mother'- whether the mother goose or Lorenz.
1 of 3
Psychology Unit 1- ATTACHMENTS- SKIN TO SKIN
Klaus & Kennell- SKIN TO SKIN (KKSS)
- Hypothesis- early skin to skin contact leads to closer bonds between new mothers & babies
- Studied women in hospital- usually babies immediately taken away after delivery (NORTH AMERICA 1976)
- Followed 2 groups of mothers from birth to when the child was 1 year old
- CONTROL CONDITION- routine contact- saw baby for short time after delivery and for feeds only
- EXPERIMENTAL CONDITION- Extended contact- 1 hr extra of skin to skin contact after birth- 5hrs extra over the next 3 days
- K & K visited mothers and babies after a month then after a year.
- Findings: EXPERIMENTAL- more soothing behaviours- cuddling etc. closer proximities, gazed at babies more.
- Conclusion: Sensitive period & it would be beneficial for fathers to be present at birth- opportunity to form early bonds.
- EVALUATION: Low population validity- young, unmarried mothers from disadvantaged inner city area. Extra attention given in exp-not actual evidence of close bond. De Chateau et al- replicated- same results.
2 of 3
Psychology Unit 1- ATTACHMENTS- GLASGOW BABIES
Shaffer & Emerson (Glasgow babies)- 1964
- Data on seperation anxiety & stranger distress
- Observations and interviews in own homes
- Approached baby- looked for signs of distress
- Asked mother about babies responses e.g. when left with babysitter- Four Point Scale- 0 (no protest)- 3 (cries loudly each time)
- Attachment behaviours linked with age
- Seperation anxiety 6-8 months- attachment formed - fear of strangers one month after.
- After one attachment formed- other family member bonds
- 65%- first attachment- Mother, 3%- father, 27%- mother and father (NOT ALWAYS PRIMARY CAREGIVER)
- 40% attachments not with main caregiver
- EVALUATION - Different methods- interviews & observations- rich in detail - TRIANGULATION. Own homes- high ecological validity, 1960's- doesn't reflect life today where men also give lots of care, relatively unstressful for babies- own home- minimal psychological harm.
3 of 3