Psychology Unit 1: Cognitive, Attachment, Research Methods

Revision notes on Cognitive (Memory), Attachment and Research Methods. However Research Methods is not complete as I have not studied all of this yet. Hope this helps :)

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Psychology
Revision
Memory

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Contents:
Short Term and Long Term Memory

Duration, Capacity and Encoding

MultiStore Model + Evaluation

Working Memory Model + Evaluation

Eyewitness Testimony Accuracy
Age and EWT
Anxiety and EWT
Misleading Information
Cognitive Interview

Strategies for Memory Improvement

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Short Term and Long Term Memory


Memory: Process by which we retain information about events that have happened in the
past.
Duration: How long a memory is available before it is no longer available.
Capacity: How much can be held/stored.
Encoding: The way information is processed so that it can…

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CONCLUSIONS:
This suggested that when rehearsal is prevented, STM lasts for about 20 seconds.

EVALUATION:
STRENGTHS WEAKNESS

:) Lab experiment variables were controlled :( Only tested one type of memory
allows us to establish cause and effect. not like what is remembered in :)j
real life. (LACKS ECOLOGICAL
VALIDITY AND…

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RESULTS:
Participants had difficulty remembering acoustically similar words in STM but not in LTM.
Remembered semantically similar words in STM but was a problem remembering in LTM.

STM LTM
Semantically similar Remember acoustically similar

CONCLUSIONS:
Supports the idea that we encode acoustically in STM and Semantically in LTM.

EVALUATION:

STRENGTHS…

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MultiStore Model + Evaluation

The MultiStore Model of Memory (Atkinson and Schiffrin) 1968
















EVALUATION:

STRENGTH: WEAKNESS:

:) Evidence supports separate stores :( Too Simplistic
(P&P, Bahrick) :( Likely to be more than one type of LTM :) Clinical
Case Studies of brain damaged (Procedural & Episodic)
patients support idea of…

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Working Memory Model + Evaluation

The Working Memory Model (Baddeley and Hitch) 1974



































EVALUATION:

STRENGTHS WEAKNESS

:) Is influential :( Too simple
:) Shows separate stores on memory :( Not sure how the Central Executive

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:) supports visual spatial store (light works
tracking experiment Baddeley. Patients :( Only shows STM
had to track a moving light whilst having to :( Not sure how time affects the
describe the angles on the letter F. processing ability
:) supports phonological loop



Eyewitness Testimony Accuracy, Age and EWT,…

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Participants were split into 5 groups. Each group received a sentence with a different word.

RESULTS:
The word made a huge difference to the estimated speed given.

Averages of estimated speed:
Smashed > 40.8 Mph (Highest)
Collided > 39.3 Mph
Bumped > 38.1 Mph
Hit > 34.0 Mph
Contacted >…

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Supporting it:
Deffenback et al (2004) conducted a metaanalysis. It was clear that there was considerable support
for the hypothesis that high levels of stress had a negative impact on the accuracy of Eye Witness
Testimonies.

However some studies have found the opposite Christianson and Hubinette (1993) questioned 58 real…

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