Psychology Unit 1: Cognitive, Attachment, Research Methods

Revision notes on Cognitive (Memory), Attachment and Research Methods. However Research Methods is not complete as I have not studied all of this yet. Hope this helps :)

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Short Term and Long Term Memory
Duration, Capacity and Encoding
MultiStore Model + Evaluation
Working Memory Model + Evaluation
Eyewitness Testimony Accuracy
Age and EWT
Anxiety and EWT
Misleading Information
Cognitive Interview
Strategies for Memory Improvement…read more

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Short Term and Long Term Memory
Memory: Process by which we retain information about events that have happened in the
Duration: How long a memory is available before it is no longer available.
Capacity: How much can be held/stored.
Encoding: The way information is processed so that it can be stored in memory.
Information reaches the brain via the senses (e.g. sight and sound) and it is then
stored in
various forms visual (pictures), acoustic (sounds) and semantic (meaning).…read more

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This suggested that when rehearsal is prevented, STM lasts for about 20 seconds.
:) Lab experiment variables were controlled :( Only tested one type of memory
allows us to establish cause and effect. not like what is remembered in :)j
real life.…read more

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Participants had difficulty remembering acoustically similar words in STM but not in LTM.
Remembered semantically similar words in STM but was a problem remembering in LTM.
Semantically similar Remember acoustically similar
Supports the idea that we encode acoustically in STM and Semantically in LTM.…read more

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Baddeley. Patients :( Only shows STM
had to track a moving light whilst having to :( Not sure how time affects the
describe the angles on the letter F. processing ability
:) supports phonological loop
Eyewitness Testimony Accuracy, Age and EWT, Anxiety and EWT, Misleading
Information & Cognitive Interview
Eye Witness Testimony:
Is the evidence provided in court with a view to identify the perpetrator of the crime.
The accuracy of the eye witness recall may be affected during the initial encoding, storage and
retrieval.…read more

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Participants were split into 5 groups. Each group received a sentence with a different word.
The word made a huge difference to the estimated speed given.
Averages of estimated speed:
Smashed > 40.8 Mph (Highest)
Collided > 39.3 Mph
Bumped > 38.1 Mph
Hit > 34.0 Mph
Contacted > 31.8 Mph (Lowest)
Information presented after the event can significantly influence over perception of the event.
In this experiment the word used influenced the perception of speed.…read more

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Supporting it:
Deffenback et al (2004) conducted a metaanalysis. It was clear that there was considerable support
for the hypothesis that high levels of stress had a negative impact on the accuracy of Eye Witness
However some studies have found the opposite Christianson and Hubinette (1993) questioned 58 real
witnesses to bank robberies. These who had been threatened in some way were more accurate and
remembered more detail then those who had just been onlookers.…read more


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