Slides in this set
Schizophrenia: A form of psychosis marked by dissociating one's self from reality. Characterised
by disruption of cognition and emotion, which affects a person's language, thought, perception,
affect and even sense of self
Sz's lack an insight to their condition and are not aware that they are ill.
In order for a diagnosis to be made 2 or more symptoms must be displayed for more than one
month along with reduced social functioning.
Positive symptoms are those that appear to reflect an excess or distortion of normal functions:
- Delusions - (Bizarre beliefs that are not real, but are real to the schizophrenic)
- Disorganised Thinking - (Feeling that thoughts have been inserted or withdrawn from the
- Hallucinations - (Unreal perceptions of environment)
Negative symptoms are those that appear to reflect a diminution or loss of normal functions:
- Affective Flattening - (Reduced range of emotional/facial expression
- Alogia - (Poverty of speech, reduced speech fluency and productivity = slowed/blocked
- Avolition - (Reduction in goal-directed behaviour - sit and do nothing everyday)…read more
DSM: Used by the US.
- 2+ symptoms during a 1 month period.
- Social/occupational functioning: work, interpersonal relations.
- Duration: continuous for at least 6 months including, at least 1 month of symptoms.
ICD: Used by Europe.
- One of the syndromes, symptoms + signs.
- Two certain syndromes.
- Lasting at least one month.
- The way symptoms are catagorised. - Look at the same symptoms.
- DSM includes social/occupational - At least 1 months worth of displaying
- DSM need at least two symptoms over a
longer period of time, ICD only need one
with some symptoms over a shorter period
- ICD emphasises on 1st rank symptoms.…read more
DSM Culturally biased:
Created by + for Americans. Behaviour in one culture may not be regarded as a symptom in
another. Ie: hearing voices in some countries is a message and honour from god, not mental.
This can lead to incorrect diagnosis and treatment.
ICD More universal, as Europe is bigger. Represents 193 countries.…read more
Reliability = consistency over time and between individuals
· Validity = When it measures what it is supposed to measure.
· To have validity it must have high reliability.
Four types of validity:
» Content - extent to which an assessment measure covers the range of symptoms of
» Criterion - those diagnosed as schizo differ predictably from those not suffering
» Construct - testing hypothesis based on the diagnosis of schizo
» Predictive - predict the eventual outcome for patients who receive a diagnosis of
INTER-RATER When 2 independent assessors give the same diagnoses. DSM
RELIABILITY does this.
TEST-RETEST Whether test used for diagnoses are consistent over time.
Comorbidity When 2 or more conditions co-occur when symptoms are
bought about by more than one/other factor(s). Which is
common in Sz occurs on 50% of patients (drug, alcohol abuse,
depression + bipolar)
+ve or ve Klosterkotter et al: +ve symptoms are more useful/valid in
symptoms. making a diagnosis than ve symptoms.
Prognosis Not every person will have the same symptoms + behaviors,
therefore it is hard to predict: Individual differences.…read more
Problems with classifying schizophrenia:
· Argued that Schizophrenia is too broad a category for it to be a useful diagnosis. Two
patients could have completely different symptoms
Cultural differences in measuring sz:
· Copeland et al (1971)
· Description of a patient to 134 US and 194 British psychiatrists
· 69% of the US psychiatrists diagnosed schizophrenia
· 2% of the UK psychiatrists diagnosed schizophrenia
Ellason and Ross (1995) people with DID (dissociative identity disorder) have more first rank
symptoms than schizophrenics! Hard to differentiate symptoms of schizophrenia from
symptoms of other diseases, they all intertwine (depression + bipolar)
· Varies massively.
· 20% recover to previous levels of functioning
· 10% achieve lasting improvement
· 30% some improvement with relapses.
Supports the idea of individual differences and that it is hard to apply symptoms and behaviours
and make a prediction/diagnosis.…read more