Principles of conversation

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English lang and lit spoken language revision
Principles of conversation
Tannen's gender theory
Status vs support: men see language as a way of asserting dominance, women
see it as a way of confirming/supporting ideas
Independence vs intimacy: men are independent, women seek support
Advice vs understanding: men use language to problem solve, women see it as
a means of empathy
Information vs feelings: males are concerned with facts, women with
Orders vs proposals: men use imperatives, women use hidden directives
Conflict vs compromise: men will argue, women will try and find a
Grice's maxims
Quantity: give the right amount of conversation. Make your contribution as
informative as possible. Don't be more informative than is appropriate
Quality: make your contribution one that is true. Don't say that for which
you lack adequate evidence.
Relevance: be relevant
Manner: be clear and avoid ambiguity
Leech- politeness principles
Tact maxim: minimise cost to other, maximise benefit to other. When we
request an action that would inconvenience someone we should use a polite
indirect form of an imperative.
Approbation maxim: minimise dispraise to other, maximise praise to other. A
declarative should be followed with a suggestion and then a positive
Lakoff's politeness theory
Don't impose
Give options
Make others feel good
Brown and Levinson's face theory
Face refers to our self image
Positive face- our need to be liked and accepted
Negative face- our right not to be imposed upon

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English lang and lit spoken language revision
Politeness involves the speaker showing some awareness of each other's face needs.…read more


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