Speech Theories

  • Created by: totaloser
  • Created on: 10-05-19 11:56

Accommodation theory

  • Created by Howard Giles
  • Convergence: Speech moves closer to that of other person and decreases social distance. (upwards/downward convergence)
  • Divergence: People's speech styles move further apart, emphasises differences between people.
  • Mutual Convergence: Both participants converge towards each other. 
  • This is seen in 'A Streetcar Named Desire' with Blanche and Stanley.
  • An example is their argument in scene 2 about the loss of Belle Reve. 
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Grices Maxims of conversation

  • Created by Paul Grice
  • Quality: Should tell the truth, do not lie
  • Quantity: Should be as informative as required, information given should not be too much or too little, not too much waffling or one word answers
  • Relevance: Relate clearly to purpose of exchange
  • Manner: Be clear, orderly and brief, avoid obscurity and ambiguity
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Politeness principles

  • Leech: minimise the cost and maximise the benefit to the other
  • Goffman: 'face' e.g forms of address, formality, turn taking etc
  • Brown and Levinson: positive politeness (showing someone they are well-liked) and negative politeness (avoid intruding on other' lives; indirect, apologetic and respectful)
  • Lakoff: don't impose, give options, make your receiver feel good 
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Keith and Shuttleworth- Men and Women Talk

  • Women: talk more, talk too much, more polite, indecisive/hesitant, complain and nag, ask more questions, support each other, more co-operative
  • Men: swear more, don't talk about emotions, talk about sport more, talk about women and machines in same way, insult each other frequently, competitive in conversation, dominate conversation, speak with more authority, give more commands, interrupt more 
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Robin Lakoff- Women's language

  • Hedges, use super polite forms, tag questions, speak 'in italics' 
  • Empty adjectives, hypercorrect grammar and pronunciation, direct quotations 
  • Special lexicon, question intonation in declarative statements, imperatives 
  • Speak less frequently, overuse qualifiers, apologise more, modal constructions
  • Avoid course language/expletives, indirect commands and requests, more intensifiers and lack a sense of humour 
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