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Explain the meaning of the term `causation'.

-Explanation of the meaning of causation. This can include:

-Factual causation ­ `but for' test and explanation, cases/examples to illustrate, eg White.

-Legal causation ­ significant and operative cause; novus actus interveniens:

-Cases/examples to illustrate: medical negligence, eg Smith, Jordan, Cheshire; contribution of…

Page 2

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Briefly explain the aims of sentencing and outline the range of sentences available to the

court if defendant were to be convicted of any offence.

-Brief explanation of aims of sentencing, ie punishment; reduction of crime; reform and rehabilitation
of offenders; protection of the public; reparation by offenders; general and…

Page 3

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Explain the meaning of the term `breach of duty'.




Damage involves the rules of causation and remoteness of damage. Outline the

meaning of these rules.

Discuss whether the defendant was in breach of these duties.

Discussion and application of the rules relating to breach of duty
Reasonable man test and…

Page 4

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-Burden of proof shifts to the defendant
-Case/example in support, eg Byrne v Boadle, Pearson v NW Gas Board

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