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Origins and development
Unlike other major political ideologies, fascism erupted in the early half of the twentieth
century. It was defined by a complete opposition to the political ideas and values of the
Enlightenment that had swept across Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, demonstrated in
their embracement…

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particularly so in Germany, where Marxists were attempting to build a strong revolutionary
movement independent of the SPD, which many saw as having betrayed the working class,
firstly by voting for war credits in 1914 and then by using right wing paramilitaries to crush
workers' uprisings following the downfall of…

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Core themes: strength through unity
One of the issues that makes fascism a difficult creed to carry out in depth analysis on is that
there is major debate as to whether the term ideology is in fact applicable to it given that it
openly rejects political rationality and theory while…

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Though the movements and regimes that grew out of fascist ideology did not gain
prominence until the 1920s and 30s the ideas that formed its theoretical structure started
to gain prominence in the late 19th C. While the social and political movements of the
early and mid19th C. had been…

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doctrine may have meant representative and constitutional government, but under
fascism it became synonymous with absolute dictatorship, and freedom with complete
submission to the authority figures within the movement, i.e. freedom from conventional
political thought and the ability to express your true, emotive nature. This gave fascism
the opportunity to…

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fronts, they continued their quest for expansion into Russia in 1941, believing that the Slavic
people of Russia were of a lesser class of human, and therefore deserved to be conquered.

Leadership and elitism
Amongst ideological traditions, fascism can be said to be alone in its total rejection of

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Rousseauian belief in the 'general will', which argued that there exists a single, unbreakable
public interest. This notion grew to become what Talmon referred to as 'totalitarian
Democracy in this sense is not expressed passively through marking an X on the ballot
paper but is enlivened through the use…

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the death of the leader of the SA Ernst Rohm along with much of the membership. As such
Marxists, such as historian and theorist Leon Trotsky in his text Fascism: What it is and
how to fight it, have argued that fascism is effectively a form of counter revolution used…

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Though they may have formed an alliance to face the powers of France, the UK and later
the United States, Italy and Germany represented quite different forms of fascism in
practice, which has led to fascism being split into two broad traditions, one following the
example of Italian fascism and…

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class differences by improving the relations between labour and capital in the hope of getting
them to view the nation they were part of as an organic and unified society. This was drawn
from Catholic social thought, which in contrast to Protestantism's belief in the value of
individual labour was…


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