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Amplitude ­ The displacement from rest position
to crest. Measured in m or cm

Wavelength ­ the length of a full cycle of the wave
i.e. crest to crest. Measured in nm / m

Frequency ­ number of complete waves passing a
certain point per second. Measured in Hertz…

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Examples = electromagnetic waves, ripples on
water and slinkies
Longitudinal waves

In Longitudinal waves the vibrations are along the
same direction as he wave travelling.

Examples are sound waves, ultrasound and Shock

The wave equation

Velocity = Frequency x wavelength

E.g. it F=2 and W=4 then V=8

Display of…

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Electromagnetic waves

There are 7 types of electromagnetic waves

Radio waves ­lowest frequency, highest


Infra Red

Visible light

Ultra violet


Gamma rays ­ Highest frequency, lowest

All EM waves travel at the same speed through
a vacuum.
Waves with shorter wavelengths have a higher

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Diffraction is when waves bend round an obstacle
causing them to spread out.
How it works
- All waves spread out at the edges when they
pass through a gap or past an object.
- The amount of diffraction depends on the size of
the gap relative to the wavelength…

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-When the wave reaches the air to another
media boundary it speeds up and bends away
from the normal.


When waves rebound of the material and reflect
of it at the same angle.

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