# Physics(waves key word definition)

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Wave
A wave transfers energy from one place to another but does not transfer any matter
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Transverse wave
In transverse waves the oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer
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Longitudinal wave
In longitudinal waves the oscillations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer
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Amplitude
The amplitude is the maximum displacement of a wave from its undisturbed position
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Wavelength
Wavelength is the distance from one point on a wave to the equivalent point on an adjacent wave
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Frequency
The frequency of waves in hertz is the number of waves passing a certain point per second
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Period
The period of a wave is the time taken for a full wave to pass a fixed point
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Wave speed
the wave speed is the speed at which the energy
is transferred through the medium
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Reflection
Waves can be reflected at the boundary between two different materials
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Absorption
Waves can also be absorbed or transmitted at the boundary between two different materials
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transmission
the action or process of transmitting something, or the state of being transmitted
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Normal human hearing range
The normal human hearing range is between 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz
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Medium
the intervening substance through which sensory impressions are conveyed or physical forces are transmitted
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Ultrasound
A frequency above 20kHz and can’t be heated by humans
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Seismic waves
P-waves are primary earthquake waves which travel aster and arrive first (thy are longitudinal)
S-waves re secondary earthquake waves which travel slower and arrive second (they are transverse)
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Echo sounding
In echo sounding, we time the reflection of a sound wave to work out the distance of an object
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Electromagnetic waves
All electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light in a vacuum (300,000,000 m/s)
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Electromagnetic Spectrum
The electromagnetic spectrum is a continuous spectrum from longer to shorter wavelengths; radio, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays
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Visible spectrum
The visible spectrum from longer to shorter wavelengths is Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet
(Richard of York gave battle in vain)
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Refraction
Refraction is when a wave changes direction as it travels from one medium into another (it also changes the speed)
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Boundary
Boundary- the surface between two materials
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Wave fronts
A wave front is a construction line linking all the adjacent peaks of a wave
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Oscillations (vibrations)
movement back and forth in a regular rhythm
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Sieverts (Sv)
Sievert is the unit of ionising radiation dose
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Ionising radiation can separate electrons from atoms eg. Ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays (plus alphabet, beta and gamma radiation)
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Convex lens
Convex lenses curve out at the middle (they converge light)
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Concave lens
Concave lenses curve in at the middle (they diverge light)
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Real image/virtual image
Real image-has light passing through it and can be projected on a screen
Virtual image-no light can pass through- it can’t be projected onto a screen
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Magnification
Magnification of 1 is the same size, >1 is bigger, <1 is smaller
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specular reflection
Is the reflection from a smooth surface like a river
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Diffuse reflection
Is when light scatters on reflection from rough surface
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Opaque
Does not allow any light through e.g. metal
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Transparent
Allows light through it e.g. glass window
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Translucent
Allows scattered light through e.g. wax
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A perfect black body absorbes all radiation directed at it. It emits a spectrum of radiation which only depends on its temperature
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

Transverse wave

#### Back

In transverse waves the oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer

### Card 3

#### Front

Longitudinal wave

Amplitude

Wavelength